Pubmed du 5/03/09

lundi 9 mars 2009

1. Correia C, Coutinho AM, Almeida J, Lontro R, Lobo C, Miguel TS, Martins M, Gallagher L, Conroy J, Gill M, Oliveira G, Vicente AM. Association of the alpha4 integrin subunit gene (ITGA4) with autism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ;2009 (Mar 3)

In the present work, we provide further evidence for the involvement of the integrin alpha-4 precursor gene (ITGA4) in the etiology of autism, by replicating previous findings of a genetic association with autism in various independent populations. The ITGA4 gene maps to the autism linkage region on 2q31-33 and is therefore a plausible positional candidate. We tested eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ITGA4 gene region for association with autism in a sample of 164 nuclear families. Evidence for association was found for the rs155100 marker (P = 0.019) and for a number of specific marker haplotypes containing this SNP (0.00053 < P < 0.022). alpha4 integrins are known to play a key role in neuroinflammatory processes, which are hypothesized to contribute to autism. In this study, an association was found between the ITGA4 rs1449263 marker and levels of a serum autoantibody directed to brain tissue, which was previously shown to be significantly more frequent in autistic patients than in age-matched controls in our population. This result suggests that the ITGA4 gene could be involved in a neuroimmune process thought to occur in autistic patients and, together with previous findings, offers a new perspective on the role of integrins in the etiology of autism to which little attention has been paid so far. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

2. Katagiri J. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism. J Music Ther ;2009 (Spring) ;46(1):15-31.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode : happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions : (a) no contact control (NCC)-no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)-teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)-teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)-teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants’ emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.

3. Kim HW, Cho SC, Kim JW, Cho IH, Kim SA, Park M, Cho EJ, Yoo HJ. Family-based association study between NOS-I and -IIA polymorphisms and autism spectrum disorders in Korean trios. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ;2009 (Mar 5) ;150B(2):300-306.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component and environmental risk factors. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), may play a role in the development of ASD. We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS-I gene and nine SNPs in the NOS-IIA gene and carried out the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype analysis in 151 Korean ASD trios. We found preferential transmission of the A allele of rs8068149 (P = 0.039) and G allele of rs1060826 (P = 0.035) of NOS-IIA in ASD and the haplotype analysis revealed that the two haplotypes had significant associations (P = 0.014 and 0.031, respectively). The behavioral subdomain score of failure to use nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) was significantly higher in subjects with the GG or AG allele in rs1060826 of NOS-IIA compared to those who had the AA allele (P = 0.027). These results provide significant but weak evidence for an association between NOS-IIA and ASD in the Korean population.

4. Pandolfi V, Magyar CI, Dill CA. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 5)

Validity studies of measures for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) for use with preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lacking. The Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 (CBCL ; Achenbach and Rescorla, Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms & Profiles. VT : University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families, Burlington, 2000), a widely used measure for EBD, contains several norm-referenced scales derived through factor analysis of data from the general pediatric population. In this study, confirmatory factor analysis of archival data evaluated the adequacy of the CBCL factor model in a well characterized sample of preschoolers with ASD (N = 128). Psychometric results supported the model and suggested that practitioners can use the CBCL to assess for EBD in young children with ASD in conjunction with other clinical data. This will increase the likelihood of accurate identification and EBD-specific intervention.

5. White SW, Roberson-Nay R. Anxiety, Social Deficits, and Loneliness in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 4)

The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among anxiety, loneliness, and degree of social skill deficit in a sample of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants (N = 20) were between 7 and 14 years of age, verbal, and had low average or higher assessed intelligence (average IQ = 92 +/- 14.41). Youth who self-reported elevated levels of anxiety reported greater feelings of social loneliness. Those participants earning above average total anxiety scores reported significantly more loneliness than those with less anxiety (F = 6.60, p < .05). A significant relationship between parent-reported child withdrawal and depression and social disability also was found. Recommendations for assessment of co-occurring psychiatric problems in youth with ASD are offered.


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