Pubmed du 12/03/09

vendredi 13 mars 2009

1. Bejerot S, Mortberg E. Do Autistic Traits Play a Role in the Bullying of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Social Phobia Sufferers ? Psychopathology ;2009 (Mar 11) ;42(3):170-176.

Background : Social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share several similarities : both are categorized as anxiety disorders, avoidant personality disorder and depression are common in both, they have a similar age of onset and course, and both disorders respond to treatments with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, OCD and social phobia differ in respect to their relation to autism spectrum disorders (ASD ; i.e. Asperger’s syndrome, autism, pervasive disorder not otherwise specified). Findings that suggest a link between OCD and ASD have no parallel in social phobia. Moreover, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are prevalent in OCD and in ASD, but not in social phobia. Individuals with ASD are known to be frequent targets of bullying. We hypothesised that individuals with autistic traits would have been frequent targets for bullies during their childhood, as opposed to people without such traits. Methods : Adult patients with social phobia (n = 63) or OCD (n = 65) were assessed regarding autistic traits, and interviewed about being bullied at school. A reference group (n = 551) responded to questions about being bullied. Results : There was a significant difference in the prevalence of being bullied between OCD (50%), social phobia patients (20%) and the reference group (27%). Autistic traits were more common in OCD than in social phobia. A history of being bullied was related to autistic traits among patients. Conclusions : Falling victim to bullying is not a random event. Autistic traits, i.e. low social skills, may be a predictor of being bullied in school. The high rate of bullying victims in persons who later develop OCD is suggested to be related to the overlap between OCD and ASD.

2. Gaigg SB, Bowler DM. Brief Report : Attenuated Emotional Suppression of the Attentional Blink in Autism Spectrum Disorder : Another Non-Social Abnormality ? J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 11)

Twenty-five individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and 25 typically developed individuals participated in an Attentional Blink paradigm to determine whether emotional words would capture attention similarly in the two groups. Whilst the emotionality of words facilitated attention in typical comparison participants, this effect was attenuated in the ASD group. The magnitude of the emotional modulation of attention in ASD also correlated significantly with participants’ VIQ, which was not observed for the comparison group. Together these observations replicate and extend the findings of Corden et al. (J Autism Develop Disord 38:1072-1080, 2008) and implicate abnormalities in emotional processes outside the broader context of social cognition in ASD. We discuss our findings in relation to possible abnormalities in amygdala function that may underlie the disorder.

3. Leeming RJ, Lucock M. Autism : Is there a folate connection ? J Inherit Metab Dis ;2009 (Mar 16)

Autism is increasing-but why ? Birth defect prevention trials were based on the teleological assumption that folic acid could prevent neural tube defects without consideration of long-term effects, some of which could be beneficial, some of which might be harmful. We therefore ask-Is it impossible to look again at these cohorts ?


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