Developmental Neurorehabilitation : Autism Spectrum Disorder (Juin 2016)

vendredi 10 juin 2016

Le numéro de juin 2016 de Developmental Neurorehabilitation est consacré à l’autisme.

1. El Zein F, Solis M, Lang R, Kim MK. Embedding perseverative interest of a child with autism in text may result in improved reading comprehension : A pilot study. Dev Neurorehabil ;2016 (Jun) ;19(3):141-145.

OBJECTIVE : We investigated the effects of embedding the perseverative interest (PI) of a child with autism (i.e. cars) within texts on reading comprehension. METHODS : A PI text condition (text altered to include cars) was compared with a non-PI text condition (same story without cars inserted) in an alternating treatment design. Dependent variables were responses to reading comprehension questions and number of words uttered during an oral retell (i.e. curriculum-based measures [CBMs]). The reading level, instructional routines, and therapist where held constant across the randomly alternated conditions. RESULTS : Both CBMs suggested that reading comprehension was enhanced when the story included the child’s PI. CONCLUSIONS : These preliminary findings suggest that embedding the PIs of students with autism spectrum disorder within readings may result in more accurate responses to reading comprehension questions and more detailed oral retelling. These findings are discussed in terms of potential directions for future research.

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2. Machado Junior SB, Celestino MI, Serra JP, Caron J, Ponde MP. Risk and protective factors for symptoms of anxiety and depression in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Dev Neurorehabil ;2016 (Jun) ;19(3):146-153.

OBJECTIVE : The severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression was evaluated in 102 parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and correlated with the severity of their child’s behavioral symptoms. DESIGN : An observational, cross-sectional study. METHODS : The Portuguese versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were used to assess symptoms in the parents and in their children. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS : Depression was present in 26.7% of parents and anxiety in 33.7%. Severe behavioral symptoms in the child increased the likelihood of severe anxiety and depression symptoms in the parents by a factor of 35. If the child had severe behavioral symptoms and the father lived in the family home, the likelihood of severe symptoms of anxiety and depression in the parents was 95.2% lower. CONCLUSION : The presence of the father living in the family home acted as a buffer against parents’ symptoms.

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3. McCrimmon AW, Matchullis RL, Altomare AA. Resilience and emotional intelligence in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Dev Neurorehabil ;2016 (Jun) ;19(3):154-161.

PURPOSE : This article presents the results of an investigation of resilience factors and their relation to emotional intelligence (EI) as an area of potential strength for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Based upon previous research with young adults, it was hypothesized that children with HFASD would demonstrate reduced EI and differential relations between EI and resilience as compared to typically developing (TD) children. METHODS : Forty children aged 8-12 years (20 with HFASD and 20 TD control children) completed measures of resilience and EI. RESULTS : Children with HFASD did not significantly differ from TD children on either measure. However, several significant correlations between resilience and EI were found in the HFASD sample. CONCLUSIONS : The findings suggest that EI may be a unique area of interest for this population, particularly for interventions that propose to capitalize upon potentially inherent strengths. Implications of these results for intervention are discussed.

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4. Van der Paelt S, Warreyn P, Roeyers H. Effect of community interventions on social-communicative abilities of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. Dev Neurorehabil ;2016 (Jun) ;19(3):162-174.

PURPOSE : To evaluate the effect that different intervention methods have on the social-communicative abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in community settings. METHODS : Intervention based on applied behaviour analysis was compared with a more specific intervention programme targeting imitation and joint attention (JA) and with treatment as usual in a sample of 85 children with ASD. Objective measures for imitation, JA, pretend play, language, autism severity and parent report measures were used to assess the effect of six months of intervention. RESULTS : Results revealed no differences between the intervention methods. There was, however, great individual variability in outcome within each treatment method. CONCLUSION : These results suggest that it is important to focus on "What works for whom" instead of trying to find a one-size-fits-all-treatment for children with ASD.

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5. Gonzales HK, O’Reilly M, Lang R, Sigafoos J, Lancioni G, Kajian M, Kuhn M, Longino D, Rojeski L, Watkins L. Research involving anxiety in non-human primates has potential implications for the assessment and treatment of anxiety in autism spectrum disorder : A translational literature review. Dev Neurorehabil ;2016 (Jun) ;19(3):175-192.

OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this translational review (i.e. moving from basic primate research toward possible human applications) was to summarize non-human primate literature on anxiety to inform the development of future assessments of anxiety in non-verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : Systematic searches of databases identified 67 studies that met inclusion criteria. Each study was analysed and summarised in terms of (a) strategies used to evoke anxiety, (b) non-verbal behavioural indicators of anxiety and (c) physiological indicators of anxiety. RESULTS : Eighteen strategies were used to evoke anxiety, 48 non-verbal behavioural indicators and 17 physiological indicators of anxiety were measured. CONCLUSIONS : A number of the strategies used with non-human primates, if modified carefully, could be considered in the ongoing effort to study anxiety in individuals with ASD. Potential applications to the assessment of anxiety in humans with ASD are discussed.

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6. Lanovaz MJ, Rapp JT, Maciw I, Dorion C, Prégent-Pelletier É. Preliminary effects of parent-implemented behavioural interventions for stereotypy. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2016 (2016/05/03) ;19(3):193-196.

The purpose of our study was to replicate and extend previous research on using multicomponent behavioural interventions designed to reduce engagement in stereotypy by examining their effects when implemented by parents over several months. Methods : We used an alternating treatment design to examine the effects of the parent-implemented interventions on engagement in stereotypy and appropriate behaviour in three children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Results : The parent-implemented multicomponent treatments reduced vocal stereotypy in all three participants and increased engagement in appropriate behaviour in two participants. These effects persisted up to 24 weeks following the parent training sessions. Conclusions : Altogether, our preliminary results support (a) the involvement of parents as behaviour change agents to reduce engagement in stereotypy and (b) the scheduling of regular, but infrequent (i.e. weekly to monthly), follow-up meetings to monitor the effects of behavioural interventions in outpatient and home-based service delivery models.

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7. Ottley JR, Ferron JM, Hanline MF. Explaining variance and identifying predictors of children’s communication via a multilevel model of single-case design research. Developmental Neurorehabilitation ;2016 (2016/05/03) ;19(3):197-202.

The purpose of this study was to explain the variability in data collected from a single-case design study and to identify predictors of communicative outcomes for children with developmental delays or disabilities (n ?= ?4). Using SAS ? University Edition, we fit multilevel models with time nested within children. Children ?s initial levels of communication and teachers ? frequency of strategy use when directed at the children predicted children’s communicative outcomes. These results indicate that teachers ? implementation of evidence-based communication strategies, when directed toward children with disabilities, and the interaction between their use of the strategies and children’s initial levels of communication predict children’s communicative outcomes. Implications for research and practice are provided.

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8. Goldin RL, Matson JL. Premature birth as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder. Dev Neurorehabil ;2016 (Jun) ;19(3):203-206.

OBJECTIVE : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is common, life-long in nature, and can be very debilitating. Thus, an intensive search is on to identify the potential risk factors for the disorder. Premature birth has been identified as one potential factor that could influence potential symptoms of ASD. METHOD : The sample for this study consisted of 1655 at risk children for developmental delays who were 17-37 months of age. Participants were divided into those diagnosed with ASD (n = 916) and children with atypical development only (n = 739). RESULTS : Premature births were almost twice as common for the atypical development group versus the ASD group. CONCLUSIONS : Implications of these data are discussed.

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9. Aguilar JM, White PJ, Fragale C, Chan JM. Preference for language of instruction of an English language learner with autism. Dev Neurorehabil ;2016 (Jun) ;19(3):207-210.

OBJECTIVE : To use a preference assessment to identify the preferred language of instruction (English or Spanish) for a child with autism living in a Spanish-speaking home and receiving school services in English only. METHODS : We used a concurrent chains method to evaluate the participant’s preference for English or Spanish instruction. Colored microswitches represented English instruction, Spanish instruction and no instruction (control). Switch presses resulted in instruction and reinforcement in either English or Spanish, or no instruction and no reinforcement. After session 10, switches were reprogrammed to control for color bias. RESULTS : The participant chose Spanish instruction most frequently. CONCLUSIONS : The participant preferred to receive instruction in Spanish. These data support previous research indicating the importance of child preference when individualizing educational programs for children with autism and that language of instruction is an important variable when working with children with autism who experience multiple languages across home and school.

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