Pubmed du 18/03/09

vendredi 20 mars 2009

1. Adams NC, Jarrold C. Inhibition and the Validity of the Stroop Task for Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 17)

Findings are mixed concerning inhibition in autism. Using the classic Stroop, children with autism (CWA) often outperform typically developing children (TDC). A classic Stroop and a chimeric animal Stroop were used to explore the validity of the Stroop task as a test of inhibition for CWA. During the classic Stroop, children ignored the word and named the ink colour, then vice versa. Although CWA showed less interference than TDC when colour naming, both groups showed comparable interference when word reading. During the chimeric animal task, children ignored bodies of animals and named heads, and vice versa ; the groups performed comparably. Findings confirm that lower reading comprehension affects Stroop interference in CWA, potentially leading to inaccurate conclusions concerning inhibition in CWA.

2. Arthur-Kelly M, Sigafoos J, Green V, Mathisen B, Arthur-Kelly R. Issues in the use of visual supports to promote communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Disabil Rehabil ;2009 (Mar 18):1-13.

Purpose. Visual supports are widely used and generally regarded as an effective resource for intervention with individuals who function on the autism spectrum. More cross-contextual research into their efficacy is required. Method and outcomes. In this article, we selectively review the research literature around visual supports based on an original conceptual model that highlights their contribution in the interpersonal social and communicative milieu of classrooms, homes and other daily living contexts. Attention is drawn to a range of practical and research issues and challenges in the use of visual supports as well as evidence of their effectiveness in enhancing participation, learning and social membership in this population. Conclusions. Areas for further research relating to the introduction and use of visual supports with the autism spectrum disorder population are identified.

3. Ben-Shachar S, Lanpher B, German JR, Qasaymeh M, Potocki L, Nagamani S, Franco LM, Malphrus A, Bottenfield GW, Spence JE, Amato S, Rousseau JA, Moghaddam B, Skinner C, Skinner SA, Bernes S, Armstrong N, Shinawi M, Stankiewicz P, Patel A, Cheung SW, Lupski JR, Beaudet AL, Sahoo T. Microdeletion 15q13.3 : A locus with incomplete penetrance for autism, mental retardation, and psychiatric disorders. J Med Genet ;2009 (Mar 15)

BACKGROUND : Microdeletions within chromosome 15q13.3 are associated both with a recently recognized syndrome of mental retardation, seizures, and dysmorphic features and with schizophrenia. METHODS AND RESULTS : Based on routine diagnostic testing of 8,200 samples using array comparative genomic hybridization, we identified 20 individuals (14 children and 6 parents in 12 families) with microdeletions of 15q13.3. Phenotypes in the children included developmental delay, mental retardation, or borderline IQ in most and autistic spectrum disorder (6/14), speech delay, aggressiveness, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioural problems. Both parents were available in seven families, and the deletion was de novo in one, inherited from an apparently normal parent in four, and inherited from a parent with learning disability and bipolar disorder in two families. Of the 14 children, 6 in 5 families were adopted, and DNA was available for only 1 of these 10 biological parents ; the deletion was very likely inherited for one of these families with two affected children. Among the unavailable parents, two mothers were described as having mental retardation, another mother as having "mental illness," and one father as having schizophrenia. We hypothesize that some of the unavailable parents have the deletion. Conclusions. The occurrence of increased adoption, frequent autism, bipolar disorder, and lack of penetrance are noteworthy findings in individuals with deletion 15q13.3. A high rate of adoption may be related to the presence of the deletion in biological parents. Unconfirmed histories of antisocial behaviours in unavailable biological parents raise the concern that future research may show that deletion 15q13.3 is associated with such behaviours.

4. Orsmond GI, Seltzer MM. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder : Testing a Diathesis-Stress Model of Sibling Well-Being. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 17)

The purpose of this study was to test a diathesis-stress model of well-being for siblings who have a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data were collected from 57 adolescents and their mothers. Sisters reported higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms than brothers. Having a family history of ASDs was associated with depressive, but not anxiety, symptoms. A high level of maternal depression was also associated with more depressive and anxiety symptoms. A diathesis-stress model was partially supported, primarily through the findings that sibling sub-threshold autism characteristics were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in siblings, but only in the presence of a high number of stressful life events.

5. Rosenberg RE, Daniels AM, Law JK, Law PA, Kaufmann WE. Trends in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses : 1994-2007. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 18)

We analyzed predictors of parent-reported initial diagnosis (autistic disorder [AD], pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS], pervasive developmental disorder [’PDD’] and autism spectrum disorder [’ASD’], and Asperger syndrome [AS]), among 6,176 individuals with autism spectrum disorders diagnosed from 1994 through 2007. Overall, distribution of diagnoses was influenced by a secular time trend factor ; other significant factors included ethnicity, white race, geographic location, urbanicity, and initial evaluator. Since 2001, most initial diagnoses of AD and AS have remained steady while ’PDD’ and PDD-NOS have decreased. ’ASD’ diagnoses have increased, especially among school-based teams ; AS diagnoses also increased uniquely among these evaluators. Findings from this study suggest that current diagnostic guidelines may not be meeting all community evaluator needs.

6. Sheppard E, Ropar D, Mitchell P. Autism and Dimensionality : Differences Between Copying and Drawing Tasks. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 17)

Previous research suggests individuals with autism may be less influenced by a three-dimensional interpretation when copying line drawings (Sheppard et al. J Autism Dev Disord 37:1913-1924, 2007). The current research aimed to determine whether this reduced dimensionality effect extends to drawings of an actual object. Twenty-four children and adolescents with autism and 24 comparison participants copied one line drawing with no depth cues, line drawings with a three-dimensional interpretation, and drew a actual three-dimensional object. Participants with autism were less influenced by three-dimensionality on the copying tasks but were equally affected when drawing the actual object. This suggests that any advantage for three-dimensional drawing in non-savant individuals with autism is confined to situations when the individual copies a line drawing with depth cues.


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