Pubmed du 20/03/09

lundi 23 mars 2009

1. Arthur-Kelly M, Sigafoos J, Green V, Mathisen B, Arthur-Kelly R. Issues in the use of visual supports to promote communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Disabil Rehabil ;2009 (Mar 18):1-13.

Purpose. Visual supports are widely used and generally regarded as an effective resource for intervention with individuals who function on the autism spectrum. More cross-contextual research into their efficacy is required. Method and outcomes. In this article, we selectively review the research literature around visual supports based on an original conceptual model that highlights their contribution in the interpersonal social and communicative milieu of classrooms, homes and other daily living contexts. Attention is drawn to a range of practical and research issues and challenges in the use of visual supports as well as evidence of their effectiveness in enhancing participation, learning and social membership in this population. Conclusions. Areas for further research relating to the introduction and use of visual supports with the autism spectrum disorder population are identified.

2. Belichenko PV, Wright EE, Belichenko NP, Masliah E, Li HH, Mobley WC, Francke U. Widespread changes in dendritic and axonal morphology in Mecp2-mutant mouse models of rett syndrome : Evidence for disruption of neuronal networks. J Comp Neurol ;2009 (Feb 23) ;514(3):240-258.

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. Girls with RTT show dramatic changes in brain function, but relatively few studies have explored the structure of neural circuits. Examining two mouse models of RTT (Mecp2B and Mecp2J), we previously documented changes in brain anatomy. Herein, we use confocal microscopy to study the effects of MeCP2 deficiency on the morphology of dendrites and axons in the fascia dentata (FD), CA1 area of hippocampus, and motor cortex following Lucifer yellow microinjection or carbocyanine dye tracing. At 3 weeks of age, most (33 of 41) morphological parameters were significantly altered in Mecp2B mice ; fewer (23 of 39) were abnormal in Mecp2J mice. There were striking changes in the density and size of the dendritic spines and density and orientation of axons. In Mecp2B mice, dendritic spine density was decreased in the FD ( approximately 11%), CA1 (14-22%), and motor cortex ( approximately 16%). A decreased spine head size ( approximately 9%) and an increased spine neck length ( approximately 12%) were found in Mecp2B FD. In addition, axons in the motor cortex were disorganized. In Mecp2J mice, spine density was significantly decreased in CA1 (14-26%). In both models, dendritic swelling and elongated spine necks were seen in all areas studied. Marked variation in the type and extent of changes was noted in dendrites of adjacent neurons. Electron microscopy confirmed abnormalities in dendrites and axons and showed abnormal mitochondria. Our findings document widespread abnormalities of dendrites and axons that recapitulate those seen in RTT. J. Comp. Neurol. 514:240-258, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

3. Cornelio-Nieto JO. [Infantile autism and mirror neurons]. Rev Neurol ;2009 (Feb 27) ;48 Suppl 2:S27-29.Autismo infantil y neuronas en espejo.

INTRODUCTION : Infantile autism is a disorder that is characterised by alterations affecting reciprocal social interactions, abnormal verbal and non-verbal communication, poor imaginative activity and a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The causes of autism remain unknown, but there are a number of different approaches that attempt to explain the neurobiological causes of the syndrome. A recent theory that has been considered is that of a dysfunction in the mirror neuron system (MNS). DEVELOPMENT : The MNS is a neuronal complex, originally described in monkeys and also found in humans, that is related with our movements and which offers specific responses to the movements and intended movements of other subjects. This system is believed to underlie processes of imitation and our capacity to learn by imitation. It is also thought to play a role in language acquisition, in expressing the emotions, in understanding what is happening to others and in empathy. Because these functions are altered in children with autism, it has been suggested that there is some dysfunction present in the MNS of those with autism. CONCLUSIONS : Dysfunction of the MNS could account for the symptoms that are observed in children with autism.

4. Gaigg SB, Bowler DM. Illusory Memories of Emotionally Charged Words in Autism Spectrum Disorder : Further Evidence for Atypical Emotion Processing Outside the Social Domain. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Mar 19)

Recent evidence suggests that individuals with ASD may not accumulate distinct representations of emotional information throughout development. On the basis of this observation we predicted that such individuals would not be any less likely to falsely remember emotionally significant as compared to neutral words when such illusory memories are induced by asking participants to study lists of words that are orthographically associated to these words. Our findings showed that typical participants are far less likely to experience illusory memories of emotionally charged as compared to neutral words. Individuals with ASD, on the other hand, did not exhibit this emotional modulation of false memories. We discuss this finding in relation to the role of emotional processing atypicalities in ASD.

5. Garcia-Penas JJ. [Autism, epilepsy and temporal lobe pathology]. Rev Neurol ;2009 (Feb 27) ;48 Suppl 2:S35-45.Autismo, epilepsia y patologia del lobulo temporal.

INTRODUCTION : The social, language, and behavioral problems that occur with autism suggest that the syndrome affects a functionally diverse and widely distributed set of neural systems. The temporal lobe is an important part of the social brain, and manifests morphological and functional alterations in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). AIM. To describe the relationship between autism, epilepsy and temporal lobe dysfunction. DEVELOPMENT : Psychopathology is common in children with temporal lobe epilepsy, with over-representation of ASD and unusual disruptive behaviour disorders. Behaviors associated with damage to the amygdala and related temporal lobe structures in humans and nonhuman primates are strikingly similar to those seen in autism. The anatomic alterations observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy involve those structures responsible for social brain functioning, mainly amygdala, hippocampus and superior temporal sulcus. This is supported by studies demonstrating associations among temporal lobe epilepsy, ASD, and neuroimaging alterations in the hippocampus and amygdala. CONCLUSIONS : The complex relationship between autism and epilepsy, as reflected in the autism-temporal lobe epilepsy phenotype, provides a bridge to further knowledge of shared neuronal networks that can account for both the autisms and the epilepsies. There is a critical early stage of brain maturation during which temporal lobe epilepsy perturbs the development of brain systems that underpin social intelligence and possibly other cognitive skills, disrupting normal cortical organization and circuitry, thereby inducing an ASD. It’s difficult to know if these patients became autistic because of repetitive epileptic seizures and/or persistent epileptiform activity on the EEG or because of the epileptogenic and psychopathological effects of temporal lobe lesions during early development (infancy and early childhood).

6. Milla MG, Mulas F. [Early attention and specific intervention programs with autism spectrum disorders]. Rev Neurol ;2009 (Feb 27) ;48 Suppl 2:S47-52.Atencion temprana y programas de intervencion especifica en el trastorno del espectro autista.

INTRODUCTION : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that is characterised by qualitative deficiencies in social interaction and in communication, behaviour that is characterised by repetitive stereotyped patterns, and a restricted repertoire of interests and activities. DEVELOPMENT AND CONCLUSIONS : Early detection and diagnosis of this disorder by means of neuropaediatric techniques and procedures plays a decisive role in being able to set up an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach, in which specific early intervention programmes are noted for their effectiveness. The aim of these programmes is to attenuate or eliminate the alterations produced by ASD from the earliest stages of childhood development. But, in addition to attending to the child, interdisciplinary early intervention teams also work with the family and the environment the child lives in. This enables them to implement a joint response that allows for substantial improvements in the competencies that the child can acquire, as well as in the welfare and quality of life of the child and his or her family.

7. Monfort I. [Communication and language : bidirectionality in interventions in children with autism spectrum disorder]. Rev Neurol ;2009 (Feb 27) ;48 Suppl 2:S53-56.Comunicacion y lenguaje : bidireccionalidad en la intervencion en ninos con trastorno de espectro autista.

INTRODUCTION : The relations between formal language skills and social skills are altered in a specific way in persons with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in a dimension that is very different to what occurs in other pathologies that affect the acquisition of such abilities. This should have implications in the models of intervention in the language of children with ASD. DEVELOPMENT : It is argued that with these children reference to ’normal’ development is not sufficient : it is necessary to establish alternative models of language acquisition that take into account both the peculiarities of the cognitive, perceptive and social profile of children with ASD and the nature of the compensation mechanisms, whether they are spontaneous or induced. CONCLUSIONS : The development of language skills depends on the aptitudes for social communication, but it seems possible to take advantage of specifically linguistic skills (which are sometimes well preserved in children with ASD) to help improve social skills : this is what is meant by the bidirectionality that exists between language and communication.

8. Ortiz T, Palau-Baduell M, Salvado-Salvado B, Valls-Santasusana A. [A study of autism spectrum disorders and language disorders using magnetoencephalography. The scientific contribution of Dr. Munoz Yunta]. Rev Neurol ;2009 (Feb 27) ;48 Suppl 2:S3-S12.Estudio de los trastornos del espectro autista y trastornos del lenguaje mediante magnetoencefalografia. Aportacion cientifica del Dr. Munoz Yunta.

INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT : Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by the alteration of three basic areas of behaviour, qualitative alterations in reciprocal social interaction, qualitative alterations in communication and patterns of behaviour, and stereotyped, repetitive and restrictive activities and interests. Specific language impairment (SLI) is a disorder in which language is slow and retarded with respect to the patient’s chronological age, and which is not related to a sensory-auditory or motor deficit or to a pervasive developmental disorder. In both disorders, epilepsy has an important role. Dr. Munoz Yunta’s researches were focused in studying ASD and SLI using magnetoencephalography in order to look for epileptiform activity in precise cerebral areas. CONCLUSIONS : Patients with ASD showed specific epileptiform activity predominantly distributed in the perisylvian areas. In patients with Asperger’s syndrome, epileptiform activity was mostly found in the right hemisphere. In patients with autism, no lateralized epileptiform activity was observed, although there was predominant activity in the left hemisphere. Subclinical epileptiform activity was found in the perisylvian areas in patients with ASD. Patients with SLI displayed epileptiform activity in the frontal and middle temporal regions of both hemispheres. Magnetoencephalography can be used to distinguish between patients with ASD and patients with SLI.

9. Paula-Perez I, Martos-Perez J. [Asperger’s syndrome and high-functioning autism : comorbidity with anxiety and mood disorders]. Rev Neurol ;2009 (Feb 27) ;48 Suppl 2:S31-34.Sindrome de Asperger y autismo de alto funcionamiento : comorbilidad con trastornos de ansiedad y del estado de animo.

INTRODUCTION : The comorbidity between Asperger’s syndrome and affective and anxiety disorders seems to be meaningful. Therefore, it is presented a revision of the most recent scientific literature to provide empiric data with the aim to set out a research prospective. DEVELOPMENT : Assessment and diagnosis of the psychosocial performance confirm a meaningful proportion of cases with affective and anxious symptomatology, being converted into disorders some of them. CONCLUSION : It is necessary a better diagnosis because the affective and behavioural disturbances can be hidden as Asperger’s syndrome and high-functioning autism associated symptomatology. Identify and recognize this comorbidity will improve the psychosocial capacity of these persons.


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