Pubmed du 4/04/09

lundi 6 avril 2009

1. Asberg J, Kopp S, Berg-Kelly K, Gillberg C. Reading comprehension, word decoding and spelling in girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) : performance and predictors. Int J Lang Commun Disord ;2009 (Apr 2):1-16.

Background : Difficulties with aspects of literacy are often seen in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). The bases of the connections between these disorders and literacy difficulties are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is not clear if existing research is representative for girls. Aims : There were three aims : (1) to compare performance in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling in girls with ASD (n = 20), AD/HD (n = 36), and community girls with typical developing (girls ; n = 54) ; (2) to assess rates of reading and writing disorders within groups ; and (3) to examine the predictive value of measures of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology to reading comprehension in the whole girl sample. Methods & Procedures : Participants were aged between 8 and 17 years, and had a full scale IQ > 70. Standardized tests of literacy, oral vocabulary, and non-verbal ability were administered. Parent ratings of degree of autistic symptomatology and both parent and teacher ratings of AD/HD symptomatology were collected for all girls. Outcomes & Results : Girls with diagnosed ASD could not be separated significantly from typically developing girls or girls with AD/HD on average performance on any literacy test. However, among girls with ASD, 40% had at least one reading and writing disorder. Girls with AD/HD performed lower than typically developing girls in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling, and 56% had at least one reading and writing disorder. In regression analysis, using the total sample, both degrees of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology negatively contributed to the variance in reading comprehension after controlling for oral vocabulary, word decoding, and non-verbal ability. Whereas AD/HD contributed to the variance in reading comprehension once autistic symptomatology was controlled for, the opposite was not true. However, a large bivariate correlation between autistic and AD/HD symptomatology somewhat complicates the interpretation of that result. Conclusions & Implications : The findings highlight the importance of monitoring and supporting the literacy development in girls with ASD or AD/HD. Results from regression analyses suggested that word decoding and/or oral vocabulary training may not be sufficient for the girls fully to overcome difficulties in the important skill of reading comprehension.

2. Heuer L, Ashwood P, Schauer J, Goines P, Krakowiak P, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hansen R, Croen LA, Pessah IN, Van de Water J. Reduced Levels of Immunoglobulin in Children With Autism Correlates With Behavioral Symptoms. Autism Res ;2008 (Oct 1) ;1(5):275-283.

OBJECTIVES : To assay if plasma antibody levels in children with autism or developmental delays (DD) differ from those with typical development as an indicator of immune function and to correlate antibody levels with severity of behavioral symptoms. METHODS : Plasma was collected from children with autistic disorder (AU ; n=116), DD but not autism (n=32), autism spectrum disorder but not full autism (n=27), and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (n=96). Samples were assayed for systemic levels of immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subjects with autism were evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and all subjects were scored on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) by the parents. Numerical scores for each of the ABC subscales as well as the total scores were then correlated with Ig levels. RESULTS : Children with AU have a significantly reduced level of plasma IgG (5.39+/-0.29 mg/mL) compared to the TD (7.72+/-0.28 mg/mL ; P<0.001) and DD children (8.23+/-0.49 mg/mL ; P<0.001). Children with autism also had a reduced level of plasma IgM (0.670.06mg/mL) compared to TD (0.79+/-0.05 mg/mL ; P<0.05). Ig levels were negatively correlated with ABC scores for all children (IgG : r=-0.334, P<0.0001 ; IgM : r=-0.167, P=0.0285). CONCLUSION : Children with AU have significantly reduced levels of plasma IgG and IgM compared to both DD and TD controls, suggesting an underlying defect in immune function. This reduction in specific Ig levels correlates with behavioral severity, where those patients with the highest scores in the behavioral battery have the most reduced levels of IgG and IgM.

3. Riches NG, Loucas T, Baird G, Charman T, Simonoff E. Sentence repetition in adolescents with specific language impairments and autism : an investigation of complex syntax. Int J Lang Commun Disord ;2009 (Apr 2):1-22.

Background : Recent studies have indicated that many children with autism spectrum disorders present with language difficulties that are similar to those of children with specific language impairments, leading some to argue for similar structural deficits in these two disorders. Aims : Repetition of sentences involving long-distance dependencies was used to investigate complex syntax in these groups. Methods & Procedures : Adolescents with specific language impairments (mean age = 15 ;3, n = 14) and autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (autism plus language impairment ; mean age = 14 ;8, n = 16) were recruited alongside typically developing adolescents (mean age = 14 ;4, n = 17). They were required to repeat sentences containing relative clauses that varied in syntactic complexity. Outcomes & Results : The adolescents with specific language impairments presented with greater syntactic difficulties than the adolescents with autism plus language impairment, as manifested by higher error rates on the more complex object relative clauses, and a greater tendency to make syntactic changes during repetition. Conclusions & Implications : Adolescents with specific language impairments may have more severe syntactic difficulties than adolescents with autism plus language impairment, possibly due to their short-term memory limitations.


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