Pubmed du 11/05/17

jeudi 11 mai 2017

1. Al-Askar M, Bhat RS, Selim M, Al-Ayadhi L, El-Ansary A. Postnatal treatment using curcumin supplements to amend the damage in VPA-induced rodent models of autism. BMC Complement Altern Med ;2017 (May 10) ;17(1):259.

BACKGROUND : Valproic acid (VPA) is used as a first-line antiepileptic agent and is undergoing clinical trials for use as a treatment for many disorders. Mothers undergoing VPA treatment during early pregnancy reportedly show increased rates of autism among their offspring. The benefits of curcumin supplementation were investigated using an animal model of VPA-induced autism. METHODS : The study was performed using a rodent model of autism by exposing rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12.5th day of gestation. At 7 days from their birth, the animals were supplemented with a specific dose of curcumin. Forty neonatal male Western Albino rats were divided into four groups. Rats in group I received only phosphate-buffered saline, rats in group II were the prenatal VPA exposure newborns, rats in group III underwent prenatal VPA exposure supplemented with postnatal curcumin, and rats in group IV were given only postnatal curcumin supplements. RESULTS : VPA rats exhibited delayed maturation and lower body and brain weights with numerous signs of brain toxicity, such as depletion of IFN-gamma, serotonin, glutamine, reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidase with an increase in CYP450, IL-6, glutamate, and oxidized glutathione. A curcumin supplement moderately corrected these dysfunctions and was especially noticeable in improving delayed maturation and abnormal weight. CONCLUSIONS : Curcumin plays a significant therapeutic role in attenuating brain damage that has been induced by prenatal VPA exposure in rats ; however, its therapeutic role as a dietary supplement still must be certified for use in humans.

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2. Becerra TA, Massolo ML, Yau VM, Owen-Smith AA, Lynch FL, Crawford PM, Pearson KA, Pomichowski ME, Quinn VP, Yoshida CK, Croen LA. A Survey of Parents with Children on the Autism Spectrum : Experience with Services and Treatments. Perm J ;2017 ;21

INTRODUCTION : Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lifelong neurodevelopmental disorders, and little is known about how parents address the health and psychosocial consequences of ASD. Few studies have examined use of various treatments and services in a large, diverse sample of children with ASD and their families. OBJECTIVE : This paper presents methods to create an autism research resource across multiple large health delivery systems and describes services and treatments used by children with ASD and their families. METHODS : Four study sites conducted a Web survey of parents of children and adolescents with ASD who were members of Kaiser Permanente. We tabulated data distributions of survey responses and calculated chi2 statistics for differences between responders and nonresponders. RESULTS : The children of the 1155 respondents were racially and ethnically diverse (55% white, 6% black, 5% Asian, 9% multiracial, 24% Hispanic) and representative of the total population invited to participate with respect to child sex (83% male), child age (57% < 10 years), and ASD diagnosis (64% autistic disorder). The most frequently used services and treatments were Individualized Education Programs (85%), family physician visits (78%), and occupational and speech therapy (55% and 60%, respectively). Home-based programs frequently included implementation of social skills training (44%) and behavior management (42%). Prescription medication use was high (48%). Caregivers reported disruption of personal and family routines because of problem behaviors. CONCLUSION : These survey data help to elucidate parents’ experiences with health services for their children with ASD and serve as a potential resource for future research.

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3. Boster JB, McCarthy JW. Designing augmentative and alternative communication applications : the results of focus groups with speech-language pathologists and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol ;2017 (May 10):1-13.

PURPOSE : The purpose of this study was to gain insight from speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regarding appealing features of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) applications. METHOD : Two separate 1-hour focus groups were conducted with 8 SLPs and 5 parents of children with ASD to identify appealing design features of AAC Apps, their benefits and potential concerns. Participants were shown novel interface designs for communication mode, play mode and incentive systems. Participants responded to poll questions and provided benefits and drawbacks of the features as part of structured discussion. RESULTS : SLPs and parents identified a range of appealing features in communication mode (customization, animation and colour-coding) as well as in play mode (games and videos). SLPs preferred interfaces that supported motor planning and instruction while parents preferred those features such as character assistants that would appeal to their child. Overall SLPs and parents agreed on features for future AAC Apps. CONCLUSION : SLPs and parents have valuable input in regards to future AAC app design informed by their experiences with children with ASD. Both groups are key stakeholders in the design process and should be included in future design and research endeavors. Implications for Rehabilitation AAC applications for the iPad are often designed based on previous devices without consideration of new features. Ensuring the design of new interfaces are appealing and beneficial for children with ASD can potentially further support their communication. This study demonstrates how key stakeholders in AAC including speech language pathologists and parents can provide information to support the development of future AAC interface designs. Key stakeholders may be an untapped resource in the development of future AAC interfaces for children with ASD.

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4. Brewer N, Young RL, Barnett E. Erratum to : Measuring Theory of Mind in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord ;2017 (May 09)

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5. Hannon MD, Hannon LV. Fathers’ Orientation to their Children’s Autism Diagnosis : A Grounded Theory Study. J Autism Dev Disord ;2017 (May 09)

Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children’s autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases : orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental differences, engaging in research and education activities, having their children formally evaluated ; inquiring about their children’s prognosis, and having curiosities about autism’s etiology. The orienting others phase entailed orientating family members and orienting members of their broader communities. Recommendations for responsive service provision, support for fathers, and future research are offered.

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6. Lucas R, Thomas L, Norbury CF. Can Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Learn New Vocabulary From Linguistic Context ?. J Autism Dev Disord ;2017 (May 09)

This study investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can learn vocabulary from linguistic context. Thirty-five children with ASD (18 with age-appropriate structural language ; 17 with language impairment [ALI]) and 29 typically developing peers were taught 20 Science words. Half were presented in linguistic context from which meaning could be inferred, whilst half were accompanied by an explicit definition. Children with ASD were able to learn from context. Condition did not influence phonological learning, but receptive semantic knowledge was greatest in the context condition, and expressive semantic knowledge greatest in the definitional condition. The ALI group learnt less than their peers. This suggests that at least some vocabulary should be taught explicitly, and children with ALI may need additional tuition.

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7. Trimmer E, McDonald S, Kelly M, Rushby JA. The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Ostracism in Adults with ASD. J Autism Dev Disord ;2017 (May 09)

Whilst some form of ostracism is experienced by most people at some point in their lives, it is experienced far more often in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is known about how this social exclusion is interpreted, experienced or managed. This study aimed to explore the psychological (mood and social needs) as well as the physiological (arousal) effects of ostracism using a well-established paradigm, Cyberball. Results demonstrated no differences between groups on social needs, however, mood was rated as more negatively by ASDs overall. Arousal was increased in when excluded compared with when excluded for ASDs, but not for controls. Overall, individuals with ASD experienced heightened physiological arousal but whilst these individuals reported overall lower mood, this response to ostracism was not expressed as emotionally significant to these individuals, suggesting possible interoceptive difficulties in this population. This highlights the need for both understanding in non-ASD individuals and intervention of this emotional distress in individuals with ASD.

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