Pubmed du 22/04/09

jeudi 23 avril 2009

1. Grinter EJ, Maybery MT, Van Beek PL, Pellicano E, Badcock JC, Badcock DR. Global Visual Processing and Self-Rated Autistic-like Traits. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Apr 18)

The current research investigated, firstly, whether individuals with high levels of mild autistic-like traits display a similar profile of embedded figures test (EFT) and global motion performance to that seen in autism. Secondly, whether differences in EFT performance are related to enhanced local processing or reduced global processing in the ventral visual stream was also examined. Results indicated that people who scored high on the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) were faster to identify embedded figures, and had poorer global motion and global form thresholds than low AQ scorers. However, the two groups did not differ on a task assessing lower-level input to the ventral stream. Overall the results indicate that individuals with high levels of autistic-like traits have difficulties with global integration in the visual pathways, which may at least partly explain their superior EFT performance.

2. Sinzig J, Walter D, Doepfner M. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Symptom or Syndrome ? J Atten Disord ;2009 (Apr 20)

Objective : This study aims to evaluate ADHDlike symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on single-item analysis, as well as the comparison of two ASD subsamples of children with ADHD (ASD+) and without ADHD (ASD-). Methods : Participants are 83 children with ASD. Dimensional and categorical aspects of ADHD are evaluated using a diagnostic symptom checklist according to DSM-IV. Results : Of the sample, 53% fulfill DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The comparison of the ASD+ and the ASD- samples reveals differences in age and IQ. Correlations of ADHD and PDD show significant results for symptoms of hyperactivity with impairment in communication and for inattention with stereotyped behavior. Item profiles of ADHD symptoms in the ASD+ sample are similar to those in a pure ADHD sample. Conclusion : The results of our study reveal a high


phenotypical overlap between ASD and ADHD. The two identified subtypes, inattentive-stereotyped and hyperactive-communication impaired, reflect the DSM classification and may theoretically be a sign of two different neurochemical pathways, a dopaminergic and a serotonergic. J. of Att. Dis. XXXX ; XX(X) xxxx).

3. Sykes NH, Toma C, Wilson N, Volpi EV, Sousa I, Pagnamenta AT, Tancredi R, Battaglia A, Maestrini E, Bailey AJ, Monaco AP. Copy number variation and association analysis of SHANK3 as a candidate gene for autism in the IMGSAC collection. Eur J Hum Genet ;2009 (Apr 22)

SHANK3 is located on chromosome 22q13.3 and encodes a scaffold protein that is found in excitatory synapses opposite the pre-synaptic active zone. SHANK3 is a binding partner of neuroligins, some of whose genes contain mutations in a small subset of individuals with autism. In individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), several studies have found SHANK3 to be disrupted by deletions ranging from hundreds of kilobases to megabases, suggesting that 1% of individuals with ASDs may have these chromosomal aberrations. To further analyse the involvement of SHANK3 in ASD, we screened the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC) multiplex family sample, 330 families, for SNP association and copy number variants (CNVs) in SHANK3. A collection of 76 IMGSAC Italian probands from singleton families was also examined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for CNVs. No CNVs or SNP associations were found within the sample set, although sequencing of the gene was not performed. Our data suggest that SHANK3 deletions may be limited to lower functioning individuals with autism.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 22 April 2009 ; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.47.

4. Tager-Flusberg H, Rogers S, Cooper J, Landa R, Lord C, Paul R, Rice M, Stoel-Gammon C, Wetherby A, Yoder P. Defining Spoken Language Benchmarks and Selecting Measures of Expressive Language Development for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Speech Lang Hear Res ;2009 (Apr 20)

PURPOSE : The aims of this paper are:To offer a set of recommended measures that can be used for evaluating the efficacy of interventions that target spoken language acquisition as part of treatment research studies or for use in applied settings. To propose and define a common terminology for describing levels of spoken language ability in the expressive modality and set benchmarks for determining a child’s language level in order to establish a framework for comparing outcomes across intervention studies. METHOD : The NIDCD assembled a group of researchers with interests and experience in the study of language development and disorders in young children with ASD. The group worked for 18 months through a series of conference calls and correspondence, culminating in a meeting held in December 2007 to achieve consensus on these aims. RESULTS : We recommend moving away from using the term "functional speech," replacing it with a developmental framework ; We recommend multiple sources of information to define language phases, including natural language samples, parent report, and standardized measures ; We provide guidelines and objective criteria for defining children’s spoken language expression in three major phases that correspond to developmental levels between 8 and 48 months of age.


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