Pubmed du 9/05/09

lundi 11 mai 2009

1. Autism and other developmental brain disorders. Nat Med ;2009 (May) ;15(5):464.

2. Langen M, Schnack HG, Nederveen H, Bos D, Lahuis BE, de Jonge MV, van Engeland H, Durston S. Changes in the Developmental Trajectories of Striatum in Autism. Biol Psychiatry ;2009 (May 6)

BACKGROUND : Repetitive and stereotyped behavior has been associated with striatum in various neuropsychiatric disorders. However, striatal involvement has not yet been shown conclusively in autism. Issues include the use of neuroleptic medication and differences in mean age between samples, where conflicting results may reflect differences in developmental stage between samples. The objective was to examine brain development in a homogeneous sample of subjects with high-functioning autism. METHODS : Magnetic resonance measures of brain structure of 188 individuals (99 subjects with high-functioning autism and 89 typically developing, matched control subjects) aged between 6 years and 25 years were compared. Measurements included the volume of brain structures, including striatum, as well as voxel-based assessment of gray matter density. RESULTS : Developmental trajectories of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens differed between subjects with autism and control subjects. Results were not accounted for by overall changes in brain volume or neuroleptic medication. The development of the caudate nucleus differed from typical most, as its volume increased with age in autism, while it decreased for control subjects. Voxel-based analysis showed that changes in striatum localized to the head of the caudate nucleus. Overall, caudate nucleus volume was associated with repetitive behavior in autism. CONCLUSIONS : We report changes in striatal development in autism, while caudate volume is associated with repetitive behaviors. This emphasizes the importance of striatum in the etiology of autism, in particular in the development of repetitive behavior that characterizes the disorder.

3. Prior C, Nunes A, Rios M, Sequeiros J, Maciel P, Gomes L, Temudo T. [Nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders in Rett syndrome : Importance of early intervention.]. An Pediatr (Barc) ;2009 (May 5)Trastornos nutricionales y gastrointestinales en el sindrome de Rett : importancia de la intervencion temprana.

OBJECTIVES : Feeding difficulties and digestive disturbances are common in patients with neurological disorders, particularly Rett syndrome. They may compromise weight and growth, often leading to malnutrition. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nutritional and gastrointestinal status of a group of children with Rett syndrome and to evaluate the benefits of clinical intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS : Based on a previously designed protocol, the authors performed gastrointestinal and nutritional assessment of 25 girls with Rett syndrome with identified MECP2 mutation. Intervention was performed individually and a subsequent evaluation involved 7 patients. RESULTS : Feeding problems were present in 11 patients (44%), and only one had partial self-feeding ability. Body mass index (BMI) was under the 5th percentile in 40%. Constipation (75%) and gastroesophageal reflux (32%) were the main gastrointestinal problems. Iron deficient anemia was present in 12% and iron deficiency/low ferritin in another 12%. Hypocalcemia occurred in 44%. After therapeutic intervention all the girls re-evaluated showed improvements in BMI, constipation and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. CONCLUSIONS : Management of patients with Rett syndrome requires a multidisciplinary team that should include Gastroenterologists. Individually tailored feeding strategies are essential to provide adequate nutrition. Early identification of nutritional and gastrointestinal disturbances and their proper management contribute to the improvement in the quality of life of these patients.

4. Tesink CM, Buitelaar JK, Petersson KM, van der Gaag RJ, Kan CC, Tendolkar I, Hagoort P. Neural correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders. Brain ;2009 (May 7)

Difficulties with pragmatic aspects of communication are universal across individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we focused on an aspect of pragmatic language comprehension that is relevant to social interaction in daily life : the integration of speaker characteristics inferred from the voice with the content of a message. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of the integration of voice-based inferences about the speaker’s age, gender or social background, and sentence content in adults with ASD and matched control participants. Relative to the control group, the ASD group showed increased activation in right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG ; Brodmann area 47) for speaker-incongruent sentences compared to speaker-congruent sentences. Given that both groups performed behaviourally at a similar level on a debriefing interview outside the scanner, the increased activation in RIFG for the ASD group was interpreted as being compensatory in nature. It presumably reflects spill-over processing from the language dominant left hemisphere due to higher task demands faced by the participants with ASD when integrating speaker characteristics and the content of a spoken sentence. Furthermore, only the control group showed decreased activation for speaker-incongruent relative to speaker-congruent sentences in right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC ; Brodmann area 10), including right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC ; Brodmann area 24/32). Since vMPFC is involved in self-referential processing related to judgments and inferences about self and others, the absence of such a modulation in vMPFC activation in the ASD group possibly points to atypical default self-referential mental activity in ASD. Our results show that in ASD compensatory mechanisms are necessary in implicit, low-level inferential processes in spoken language understanding. This indicates that pragmatic language problems in ASD are not restricted to high-level inferential processes, but encompass the most basic aspects of pragmatic language processing.

5. Vignoli A, La Briola F, Canevini MP. Evolution of stereotypies in adolescents and women with Rett syndrome. Mov Disord ;2009 (May 7)

Stereotypies in Rett syndrome (RTT) are a diagnostic hallmark present in all stages of the disease, but descriptions of movement disorders in adults are very scant. Among 30 patients with RTT followed-up at San Paolo Hospital in Milan, we selected those aged >/=14 years and studied 12 patients (mean age 18. 6 years, range : 14-31) with MECP2 mutations. Mean age at stereotypies onset was 19.4 months ; stereotypies at onset tend to be maintained during evolution, while new stereotyped movements can be detected in the follow-up. All patients still present stereotypies involving separated or joined hands : most frequently mouthing, pill rolling, and twisting. We underline that stereotyped movements persist in older patients and can be useful to suspect RTT diagnosis in adult age in otherwise unclassified patients. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.


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