Pubmed du 04/06/09

lundi 8 juin 2009

1. Begeer S, Terwogt MM, Lunenburg P, Stegge H. Brief Report : Additive and Subtractive Counterfactual Reasoning of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Jun 4)

The development of additive (’If only I had done...’) and subtractive (’If only I had not done....’) counterfactual reasoning was examined in children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD) (n = 72) and typically developing controls (n = 71), aged 6-12 years. Children were presented four stories where they could generate counterfactuals based on a given consequent (e.g., ’you left muddy footprints in the kitchen. How could that have been prevented ?’). Children with HFASD increasingly used subtractive counterfactuals as they got older, but controls showed an increase in additive counterfactuals, which may be linked to their growing adaptive and flexible skills. Children with HFASD likely develop different strategies for their counterfactual reasoning. The role of IQ and ideational fluency will be discussed.

2. Crane L, Goddard L, Pring L. Specific and general autobiographical knowledge in adults with autism spectrum disorders : The role of personal goals. Memory ;2009 (Jun 4):1-20.

Autobiographical knowledge is stored hierarchically, at both specific and general levels of representation. It has also been proposed that the self is the structure around which autobiographical memories are organised. The current series of studies assessed whether the autobiographical memory difficulties observed in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could be due to problems in using the self as an effective memory cue. A series of cueing paradigms were used to assess the accessibility of both specific and general autobiographical knowledge relating to (i) currently pursued goals (either high or low in self-concordance) and (ii) goals that participants were not currently pursuing. Results demonstrated that while event-specific knowledge was impaired in the ASD group, general event knowledge appeared relatively intact. Moreover, while both event-specific and general event knowledge were organised around goals of the self in control participants, a corresponding relationship was only observed for general event knowledge in the ASD group.


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