Pubmed du 13/06/09

lundi 15 juin 2009

1. Anderson DK, Oti RS, Lord C, Welch K. Patterns of Growth in Adaptive Social Abilities Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol ;2009 (Jun 12)

2. Hardan AY, Libove RA, Keshavan MS, Melhem NM, Minshew NJ. A Preliminary Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain Volume and Cortical Thickness in Autism. Biol Psychiatry ;2009 (Jun 10)

BACKGROUND : Autism is a developmental neurobiologic disorder associated with structural and functional abnormalities in several brain regions including the cerebral cortex. This longitudinal study examined developmental changes in brain volume and cortical thickness (CT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with autism. METHODS : MRI scans and behavioral measures were obtained at baseline and after a 30-month interval in a sample of male subjects with autism (n = 18) and healthy age-, and sex-matched control subjects (n = 16) between ages 8 and 12 years at baseline. RESULTS : No differences in brain volumes were observed between the autism and control subjects at baseline or follow-up. However, differences in total gray matter volumes were observed over time with significantly greater decreases in the autism group compared with control subjects. Differences in CT were observed over time with greater decreases in the autism group compared with control subjects in several brain regions including the frontal lobe. When accounting for multiple comparisons, differences between the two groups became nonsignificant except for changes in occipital CT. Furthermore, associations were observed between several clinical features and changes in CT with greater thinning of the cortex being correlated with more severe symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS : Findings from this study provide preliminary evidence for age-related changes in gray matter volume and CT in children with autism that are associated with symptoms severity. Future longitudinal studies of larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate developmental changes and examine the relationships between structural abnormalities and clinical expressions of the disorder.

3. Hutman T, Siller M, Sigman M. Mothers’ narratives regarding their child with autism predict maternal synchronous behavior during play. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ;2009 (Jun 10)

Background : Mothers’ synchronous playtime behaviors have been linked to language development in children with autism (Siller & Sigman, 2002, 2008). This study sought to explain individual differences in maternal synchrony in order to improve parent-training programs targeting communication skills in children with autism. Methods : Participants were 67 children with autism under the age of 7 and their biological mothers. Maternal cognitions were assessed using two narrative measures, the Insightfulness Assessment (Koren-Karie & Oppenheim, 1997) and the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview (Pianta & Marvin, 1992). Mean levels of maternal synchrony, measured with a micro-analytic coding system (Siller & Sigman, 2002, 2008), were compared between groups formed according to mothers’ interview classifications. Results : Variation in maternal synchrony was related to classification of the Insightfulness Assessment, but not the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview. Child characteristics were not related to interview classifications or ratings of maternal synchrony. Conclusion : Qualities of mothers’ narratives about their child with autism and the relationship with the child are associated with variability in maternal synchronous behavior during play.

4. Jovanovic-Privrodski JD, Kavecan, II, Obrenovic MR, Buonadonna LA, Bukvic NM. Autism and hypoplastic corpus callosum in a case of monocentric marker chromosome 15. Pediatr Neurol ;2009 (Jul) ;41(1):65-67.

An 8-year-old boy was diagnosed with autism, along with development delay, seizures, and hypoplastic corpus callosum. His karyotype was 47, XY, +mar.ish (15) (D15Z1+, SNRPN+, GABRB3+, PML-(de novo ?). The supernumerary marker chromosome 15 with euchromatin was monosatellited and monocentric. Although autism, seizures, and mental and developmental retardation are not rare in association with a dicentric, bisatellited supernumerary marker chromosome 15, the present case is novel for a monocentric, monosatellited supernumerary marker chromosome 15 and the additional feature of hypoplastic corpus callosum. The present case provides support for the hypotheses that additional copies of different segments of proximal 15q are related to autism and to malformations of corpus callosum.


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