Pubmed du 2/07/09

vendredi 3 juillet 2009

1. Black DO, Wallace GL, Sokoloff JL, Kenworthy L. Brief Report : IQ Split Predicts Social Symptoms and Communication Abilities in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Jul 2)

We investigated the relationship of discrepancies between VIQ and NVIQ (IQ split) to autism symptoms and adaptive behavior in a sample of high-functioning (mean FSIQ = 98.5) school-age children with autism spectrum disorders divided into three groups : discrepantly high VIQ (n = 18) ; discrepantly high NVIQ (n = 24) ; and equivalent VIQ and NVIQ (n = 36). Discrepantly high VIQ and NVIQ were associated with autism social symptoms but not communication symptoms or repetitive behaviors. Higher VIQ and NVIQ were associated with better adaptive communication but not socialization or Daily Living Skills. IQ discrepancy may be an important phenotypic marker in autism. Although better verbal abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in autism, discrepantly high VIQ in high-functioning children may also be associated with social difficulties.

2. Gardener H, Spiegelman D, Buka SL. Prenatal risk factors for autism : comprehensive meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry ;2009 (Jul) ;195(1):7-14.

BACKGROUND : The aetiology of autism is unknown, although prenatal exposures have been the focus of epidemiological research for over 40 years. AIMS : To provide the first quantitative review and meta-analysis of the association between maternal pregnancy complications and pregnancy-related factors and risk of autism. METHOD : PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for epidemiological studies that examined the association between pregnancy-related factors and autism. Forty studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Summary effect estimates were calculated for factors examined in multiple studies. RESULTS : Over 50 prenatal factors have been examined. The factors associated with autism risk in the meta-analysis were advanced parental age at birth, maternal prenatal medication use, bleeding, gestational diabetes, being first born v. third or later, and having a mother born abroad. The factors with the strongest evidence against a role in autism risk included previous fetal loss and maternal hypertension, proteinuria, pre-eclampsia and swelling. CONCLUSIONS : There is insufficient evidence to implicate any one prenatal factor in autism aetiology, although there is some evidence to suggest that exposure to pregnancy complications may increase the risk.

3. Qin J, Jia M, Wang L, Lu T, Ruan Y, Liu J, Guo Y, Zhang J, Yang X, Yue W, Zhang D. Association study of SHANK3 gene polymorphisms with autism in Chinese Han population. BMC Med Genet ;2009 (Jun 30) ;10(1):61.

ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND : Autism, a heterogeneous disease, is described as a genetic psychiatry disorder. Recently, abnormalities at the synapse are supposed to be important for the etiology of autism. SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein) gene encodes a master synaptic scaffolding protein at postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapse. Rare mutations and copy number variation (CNV) evidence suggested SHANK3 as a strong candidate gene for the pathogenesis of autism. METHODS : We performed an association study between SHANK3 gene polymorphisms and autism in Chinese Han population. We analyzed the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SHANK3 gene and autism in 305 Chinese Han trios, using the family based association test (FBAT). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed the presence of LD between pairwise markers across the locus. We also performed mutation screening for the rare de novo mutations reported previously. RESULTS : No significant evidence between any SNPs of SHANK3 and autism was observed. We did not detect any mutations described previously in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS : We suggest that SHANK3 might not represent a major susceptibility gene for autism in Chinese Han population.

4. Smith A. Emotional Empathy in Autism Spectrum Conditions : Weak, Intact, or Heightened ? J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Jul 2)

5. Tsujii N, Okada A, Kaku R, Kuriki N, Hanada K, Shirakawa O. Differentiation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and pervasive developmental disorders with hyperactivity on objective activity levels using actigraphs. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ;2009 (Jun) ;63(3):336-343.

AIMS : To clarify differences in objective activity levels between children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and those with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and hyperactivity. METHOD : Eighteen boys with combined type ADHD, 10 boys with PDD with hyperactivity, and 18 control boys wore actigraphs for 1 week while attending elementary school. In addition to the average activity level, the standard deviation in the activity levels were compared for two continuous situations : (i) in-seat classes, in which the participants were expected to sit in their own seats and learn quietly ; and (ii) free recess periods following the in-seat classes. RESULTS : All the groups were affected by the situational shift, the average activity level of each the groups was higher and the standard deviation was smaller than those during the in-seat classes. The boys with ADHD exhibited a still smaller standard deviation than the controls and the boys with PDD and hyperactivity during the free recess period ; no difference between the controls and the boys with PDD was seen. The boys with PDD exhibited a significantly lower average activity level than the other groups. No differences among the groups in the average activity levels and standard deviation were seen during the in-seat classes. CONCLUSIONS : The observed objective activity levels in each group reflect the degree to which the boys are able to tolerate changes in situations. Objective measurement of activity levels may be useful to differentiate hyperactivity in children with ADHD from that in children without ADHD.

6. White SW, Ollendick T, Scahill L, Oswald D, Albano AM. Preliminary Efficacy of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Jun 30)

Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint, endpoint, and 6 months following treatment. Treatment consisted of cognitive-behavioral therapy, supplemented with parent education and group social skills training. The treatment program was effective in reducing anxiety in three of the four subjects and improving the social skills in all four subjects. Recommendations for the assessment and treatment of anxiety youth with ASD such as use of self-report measures to complement clinician and parent-reports and adaptations to traditional child-based CBT, are offered.











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