Pubmed du 24/11/17

vendredi 24 novembre 2017

1. Burke SL, Bresnahan T, Li T, Epnere K, Rizzo A, Partin M, Ahlness RM, Trimmer M. Using Virtual Interactive Training Agents (ViTA) with Adults with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017.

Conversational virtual human (VH) agents are increasingly used to support role-play experiential learning. This project examined whether a Virtual Interactive Training Agent (ViTA) system would improve job interviewing skills in individuals with autism and developmental disabilities (N = 32). A linear mixed model was employed to evaluate adjusted least square mean differences of means scores on the Marino Interview Assessment Scale (MIAS) across different time points. The mean score of MIAS over all questions increased between the first ViTA session and the final face-to-face interview. Participants developed the ability to identify strengths, self-promote, self-advocate, answer situational questions, and respond to behavioral/social questions as measured by multiple evaluations using the MIAS.

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2. Carlisi CO, Norman L, Murphy CM, Christakou A, Chantiluke K, Giampietro V, Simmons A, Brammer M, Murphy DG, Mataix-Cols D, Rubia K. Disorder-Specific and Shared Brain Abnormalities During Vigilance in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 ; 2(8) : 644-54.

Background : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods : Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD (n = 20), boys with OCD (n = 20), and healthy control boys (n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Brain activation and performance were compared among adolescents with OCD, adolescents with ASD, and control adolescents. Results : Whereas boys with ASD and OCD were not impaired on task performance, there was a significant group by attention load interaction in several brain regions. With increasing attention load, left inferior frontal cortex/insula and left inferior parietal lobe/pre/post-central gyrus were progressively less activated in boys with OCD relative to the other two groups. In addition, boys with OCD showed progressively increased activation with increasing attention load in rostromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex relative to boys with ASD and control boys. Shared neurofunctional abnormalities between boys with ASD and boys with OCD included increased activation with increasing attention load in cerebellum and occipital regions, possibly reflecting increased default mode network activation. Conclusions : This first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to compare boys with ASD and OCD showed shared abnormalities in posterior cerebellar-occipital brain regions. However, boys with OCD showed a disorder-specific pattern of reduced activation in left inferior frontal and temporo-parietal regions but increased activation of medial frontal regions, which may potentially be related to neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognitive and clinical phenotypes of OCD.

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3. Carvalho Pereira A, Violante IR, Mouga S, Oliveira G, Castelo-Branco M. Medial Frontal Lobe Neurochemistry in Autism Spectrum Disorder is Marked by Reduced N-Acetylaspartate and Unchanged Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate + Glutamine Levels. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017.

The nature of neurochemical changes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains controversial. We compared medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurochemistry of twenty high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD without associated comorbidities and fourteen controls. We observed reduced total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) and total creatine, increased Glx/tNAA but unchanged glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and unchanged absolute or relative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA+) in the ASD group. Importantly, both smaller absolute and relative GABA+ levels were associated with worse communication skills and developmental delay scores assessed by the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R). We conclude that tNAA is reduced in the mPFC in ASD and that glutamatergic metabolism may be altered due to unbalanced Glx/tNAA. Moreover, GABA+ is related to autistic symptoms assessed by the ADI-R.

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4. Delemere E, Dounavi K. Parent-Implemented Bedtime Fading and Positive Routines for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017.

Sleep disorders affect a large portion of those with autism spectrum disorder. Behavioural interventions have been found to increase appropriate sleep behaviours. This study sought to examine the efficacy of two stimulus control interventions (bedtime fading and positive routines) on total sleep duration, sleep onset latency and frequency and duration of night wakings for children with autism using two multiple baseline designs. Secondary dependent variables, namely, educational opportunities, challenging behaviours, parent acceptance and social validity were also analysed. Results suggest some efficacy for both interventions. Increased total sleep duration and decreased sleep onset latency were achieved with bedtime fading. Positive routines showed mixed results with decreased sleep onset latency and increased total sleep duration for two of three participants.

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5. Faridi F, Khosrowabadi R. Behavioral, Cognitive and Neural Markers of Asperger Syndrome. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2017 ; 8(5) : 349-59.

Asperger syndrome (AS) is a subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) characterized by major problems in social and nonverbal communication, together with limited and repetitive forms of behavior and interests. The linguistic and cognitive development in AS is preserved which help us to differentiate it from other subtypes of ASD. However, significant effects of AS on cognitive abilities and brain functions still need to be researched. Although a clear cut pathology for Asperger has not been identified yet, recent studies have largely focused on brain imaging techniques to investigate AS. In this regard, we carried out a systematic review on behavioral, cognitive, and neural markers (specifically using MRI and fMRI) studies on AS. In this paper, behavior, motor skills and language capabilities of individuals with Asperger are compared to those in healthy controls. In addition, common findings across MRI and fMRI based studies associated with behavior and cognitive disabilities are highlighted.

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6. Kalyoncu IO, Tanboga I. Oral Health Status of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Compared with Non-authentic Peers. Iran J Public Health. 2017 ; 46(11) : 1591-3.

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7. Marton K, Kovi Z, Egri T. Is interference control in children with specific language impairment similar to that of children with autistic spectrum disorder ?. Res Dev Disabil. 2017 ; 72 : 179-90.

AIMS : The purpose of the study was to examine resistance to proactive interference, which is strongly associated with working memory (WM) performance and language processing, in children with specific language impairment (SLI), with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and with typical development (TD). METHODS : Sixty children (eight to ten years ; matched in age and nonverbal IQ) participated in the study. Resistance to proactive interference was measured using a verbal conflict paradigm. RESULTS : Children with SLI and ASD show a deficit in resistance to proactive interference compared to their TD peers, but the source of the problem appears to be different for the two clinical groups. The interference problem exhibited by the children with SLI is related to a more complex deficit involving different cognitive-linguistic functions, whereas the children with ASD show a specific problem in cognitive flexibility. IMPLICATIONS : The theoretical implications are that poor resistance to interference may be caused by weaknesses in different WM functions, such as a deficit in updating or responses based on familiarity rather than recollection. The clinical implications are that children with SLI and ASD show distinct patterns of performance ; therefore they need different types of intervention to strengthen their resistance to proactive interference.

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8. Matherly SM, Klusek J, Thurman AJ, McDuffie A, Abbeduto L, Roberts JE. Cortisol profiles differentiated in adolescents and young adult males with fragile X syndrome versus autism spectrum disorder. Dev Psychobiol. 2017.

BACKGROUND : Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are distinct disorders with overlapping behavioral features. Both disorders are also highly associated with anxiety with abnormal physiological regulation implied mechanistically. Some reports suggest atypical hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, indexed via aberrant cortisol reactivity, in both FXS and non-syndromic ASD. However, no study has compared cortisol reactivity across these two disorders, or its relationship to ASD symptom severity. METHODS : Cortisol reactivity (prior to and following a day of assessments) was measured in 54 adolescent/young adult males with FXS contrasted to 15 males with non-syndromic ASD who had low cognitive abilities. RESULTS : Greater ASD symptom severity was related to increased cortisol reactivity and higher levels at the end of the day, but only in the non-syndromic ASD group. Elevated anxiety was associated with increased HPA activation in the group with FXS alone. CONCLUSIONS : Taken together, findings suggest a unique neuroendocrine profile that distinguishes adolescent/young adult males with FXS from those with non-syndromic ASD. Severity of ASD symptoms appears to be related to cortisol reactivity in the non-syndromic ASD sample, but not in FXS ; while anxiety symptoms are associated with HPA activation in the FXS sample, but not in ASD despite a high prevalence of ASD, anxiety and physiological dysregulation characteristic in both populations.

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9. McCauley JB, Zajic MC, Oswald TM, Swain-Lerro LE, McIntyre NC, Harris MA, Trzesniewski K, Mundy PC, Solomon M. Brief Report : Investigating Relations Between Self-Concept and Performance in Reading and Math for School-Aged Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017.

A typically developing student’s perceptions of his or her own capabilities (academic self-concept), is predictive of later academic achievement. However, little is known about academic self-concept in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand whether students math self-concept and reading self-concept predicted their performance, 44 school-aged children and adolescents with ASD and 36 age-matched individuals with typical development (TYP) rated their perceived math and reading abilities and were administered standardized achievement measures. Results showed self-concept was predictive of performance in math and reading in the TYP group. For youth with ASD, there was agreement between self-concept and performance only in math. These findings suggest that educators should be cautious when interpreting the self-assessments of reading ability in students with ASD.

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10. Mitelman SA, Buchsbaum MS, Young DS, Haznedar MM, Hollander E, Shihabuddin L, Hazlett EA, Bralet MC. Increased white matter metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Brain Imaging Behav. 2017.

Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are often characterized as disorders of white matter integrity. Multimodal investigations have reported elevated metabolic rates, cerebral perfusion and basal activity in various white matter regions in schizophrenia, but none of these functions has previously been studied in ASD. We used (18)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to compare white matter metabolic rates in subjects with ASD (n = 25) to those with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy controls (n = 55) across a wide range of stereotaxically placed regions-of-interest. Both subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed increased metabolic rates across the white matter regions assessed, including internal capsule, corpus callosum, and white matter in the frontal and temporal lobes. These increases were more pronounced, more widespread and more asymmetrical in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. The highest metabolic increases in both disorders were seen in the prefrontal white matter and anterior limb of the internal capsule. Compared to normal controls, differences in gray matter metabolism were less prominent and differences in adjacent white matter metabolism were more prominent in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are associated with heightened metabolic activity throughout the white matter. Unlike in the gray matter, the vector of white matter metabolic abnormalities appears to be similar in ASD and schizophrenia, may reflect inefficient functional connectivity with compensatory hypermetabolism, and may be a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders.

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11. Pokorny JJ, Hatt NV, Rogers SJ, Rivera SM. What Are You Doing With That Object ? Comparing the Neural Responses of Action Understanding in Adolescents With and Without Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017.

Understanding another’s actions, including what they are doing and why they are doing it, can be difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This understanding is supported by the action observation (AON) and mentalizing (MZN) networks, as well as the superior temporal sulcus. We examined these areas in children with ASD and typically developing controls by having participants view eating and placing actions performed in conventional and unconventional ways while functional magnetic resonance images were collected. We found an effect of action-type, but not conventionality, in both groups, and a between groups difference only when viewing conventional eating actions. Findings suggest there are not global AON/MZN deficits in ASD, and observing unconventional actions may not spontaneously activate the MZN.

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12. Randall KR, Lambert JM, Matthews MP, Houchins-Juarez NJ. Individualized Levels System and Systematic Stimulus Pairing to Reduce Multiply Controlled Aggression of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behav Modif. 2017 : 145445517741473.

Research has shown that physical aggression is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Interventions for multiply controlled aggression may be complex and difficult to implement with fidelity. As a result, the probability of treatment efficacy for this class of behavior may suffer. We designed an individualized levels system to reduce the physical aggression of an 11-year-old female with ASD. We then employed a systematic stimulus pairing procedure to facilitate generalization. Results suggest individualized levels systems can suppress multiply controlled aggression and that systematic stimulus pairing is an effective way to transfer treatment effects from trained therapists to caregivers.

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13. Schertz HH, Odom SL, Baggett KM, Sideris JH. Mediating Parent Learning to Promote Social Communication for Toddlers with Autism : Effects from a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017.

A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate effects of the Joint Attention Mediated Learning (JAML) intervention. Toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) aged 16-30 months (n = 144) were randomized to intervention and community control conditions. Parents, who participated in 32 weekly home-based sessions, followed a mediated learning process to target preverbal social communication outcomes (social visual synchrony, reciprocity, and responding and initiating forms of joint attention) throughout daily interactions. The analysis found post-intervention effects for all outcomes, with all except initiating joint attention sustaining 6 months post-intervention. Findings support the value of very early intervention targeting explicitly social functions of preverbal communication and of promoting active engagement in the learning process for both toddlers and parents.

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14. Schwartz AE, Kramer JM, Longo AL. Patient-reported outcome measures for young people with developmental disabilities : incorporation of design features to reduce cognitive demands. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2017.

Use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) may increase the involvement of young people with developmental disabilities in their healthcare decisions and healthcare-related research. Young people with developmental disabilities may have difficulty completing PROMs because of extraneous assessment demands that require additional cognitive processes. However, PROM design features may mitigate the impact of these demands. We identified and evaluated six pediatric PROMs of self-care and domestic life tasks for the incorporation of suggested design features that can reduce cognitive demands. PROMs incorporated an average of 6 out of 11 content, 7 out of 14 layout, and 2 out of 9 administration features. This critical review identified two primary gaps in PROM design : (1) examples and visuals were not optimized to reduce cognitive demands ; and (2) administration features that support young people’s motivation and self-efficacy and reduce frustration were underutilized. Because assessment demands impact the validity of PROMs, clinicians should prospectively consider the impact of these demands when selecting PROMs and interpreting scores. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS : Patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) design features can reduce assessment demands related to cognitive processes. Pediatric PROMs underutilize design features that decrease cognitive demands of self-reporting.

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15. Zeng K, Kang J, Ouyang G, Li J, Han J, Wang Y, Sokhadze EM, Casanova MF, Li X. Disrupted Brain Network in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Sci Rep. 2017 ; 7(1) : 16253.

Alterations in brain connectivity have been extensively reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while their effects on the topology of brain network are still unclear. This study investigated whether and how the brain networks in children with ASD were abnormally organized with resting state EEG. Temporal synchronization analysis was first applied to capture the aberrant brain connectivity. Then brain network topology was characterized by three graph analysis methods including the commonly-used weighted and binary graph, as well as minimum spanning tree (MST). Whole brain connectivity in ASD group was found to be significantly reduced in theta and alpha band compared to typically development children (TD). Weighted graph found significantly decreased path length together with marginally significantly decreased clustering coefficient in ASD in alpha band, indicating a loss of small-world architecture to a random network. Such abnormal network topology was also demonstrated in the binary graph. In MST analysis, children with ASD showed a significant lower leaf fractions with a decrease trend of tree hierarchy in the alpha band, suggesting a shift towards line-like decentralized organization in ASD. The altered brain network may offer an insight into the underlying pathology of ASD and possibly serve as a biomarker that may aid in diagnosis of ASD.

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