Pubmed du 26/11/17

dimanche 26 novembre 2017

1. Creagh O, Torres H, Rivera K, Morales-Franqui M, Altieri-Acevedo G, Warner D. Previous Exposure to Anesthesia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) : A Puerto Rican Population-Based Sibling Cohort Study. Bol Asoc Med P R. 2016 ; 108(2) : 73-80.

BACKGROUND : Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior, that begins usually before a child is three years old.(1) Researchers have shown that prevalence rates in the U.S. may be as high as 1 in 68.(52) A number of studies have examined the effects of early exposure to anesthesia on brain development and subsequent impairment in neurocognitive function ; yet, little is known about the possible effects of anesthetic agents on social-behavioral functioning. The association between exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, during the first years of life, or later and development of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or its severity was determined in a retrospective population based cohort study. OBJECTIVES : Identify if children who had previous exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, first years of life during their developing brain years, or later, are at risk of developing ASD and its severe form of the disease. METHODS : Data was obtained from structured interviews administered to a sample of 515 parents/guardians distributed in two groups : ASD = 262 children diagnosed with this condition and Non-ASD : 253 children (siblings of ASD group) without diagnosis (95% confidence interval) that freely decided to participate and agreed to a consent form. Variables studied include : demographics, diagnosis and severity of ASD, exposure to anesthesia, method of childbirth, and age of exposure Children less than 2 years of age were considered into have developing brain period. Data was analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher exact test. RESULTS : In contrast to non-ASD group, most of the children within ASD group were male, 76% (p=0.0001). With regards to methods of childbirth, 64% of the ASD population were vaginal delivery (VD ; Non-anesthesia exposure group) and 36% cesarean delivery (CD) compared to non-autistic population with 71% VD and 29% CD, which demonstrates no statistical difference between both groups (p=0.1113). Out of the 36% of ASD population that underwent CD, 7% were performed using general anesthesia and 93% regional anesthesia, while the 29% of the CD of non-ASD, 5% were performed using general anesthesia and 95% regional anesthesia. This reveals no statistical significance (p=0.7569) with the development of ASD and the type of anesthesia used when comparing ASD with non-ASD patients. In view of severity of autism, in VD, 56% of ASD population had mild form of the disorder, 34% moderate, and 10% severe ; while CD had a 54% mild form of the disorder, 33% moderate, and 13% severe. This shows no statistical association (p=0.8069) when comparing exposure to anesthesia in uterus to subsequent severe form of ASD. Of the 262 ASD patients, 99 had exposure to anesthetics before their diagnosis, while in Non-ASD population, 110 had exposure to anesthesia, demonstrating no statistically significant association between both groups (p=0.2091). Out of 99 ASD patients exposed to anesthesia prior to their diagnosis, 72 were exposed before age 2. When compared to the 110 Non-ASD patients exposed to anesthesia, 86 had exposure during this developing brain period, which indicates no statistically significant association (p=0.4207). In addition, most of the ASD children exposed to anesthesia during developing brain were diagnosed with mild degree of the disorder when compared to ASD children without any previous exposure to anesthesia (p=0.9700) during the same period. When the exposure occurred after age 2, ASD children developed mild form of the disorder as compared with ASD children without any previous exposure to anesthesia (p=0.1699) in that period. CONCLUSIONS : Children under early exposure to anesthesia in uterus, first 2 years of life, or later are not more likely to develop neither ASD nor severe form of the disorder.

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2. Endevelt-Shapira Y, Perl O, Ravia A, Amir D, Eisen A, Bezalel V, Rozenkrantz L, Mishor E, Pinchover L, Soroka T, Honigstein D, Sobel N. Altered responses to social chemosignals in autism spectrum disorder. Nat Neurosci. 2017.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social communication, often attributed to misreading of emotional cues. Why individuals with ASD misread emotions remains unclear. Given that terrestrial mammals rely on their sense of smell to read conspecific emotions, we hypothesized that misreading of emotional cues in ASD partially reflects altered social chemosignaling. We found no difference between typically developed (TD) and cognitively able adults with ASD at explicit detection and perception of social chemosignals. Nevertheless, TD and ASD participants dissociated in their responses to subliminal presentation of these same compounds : the undetected ’smell of fear’ (skydiver sweat) increased physiological arousal and reduced explicit and implicit measures of trust in TD but acted opposite in ASD participants. Moreover, two different undetected synthetic putative social chemosignals increased or decreased arousal in TD but acted opposite in ASD participants. These results implicate social chemosignaling as a sensory substrate of social impairment in ASD.

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3. Erturk B, Machalicek W, Drew C. Self-Injurious Behavior in Children With Developmental Disabilities : A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Literature. Behav Modif. 2017 : 145445517741474.

We reviewed single-case research studies examining the effects of behavioral interventions for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in young children with autism and developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies (66 participants younger than the age of 12) meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were examined based on (a) participant demographics, (b) topography and function of SIB, (c) type of functional behavior assessment (FBA), (d) intervention procedures and outcomes, and (e) experimental design and measurement. Intervention strategies were categorized as antecedent manipulations, teaching behavior, consequence-based procedures, and/or extinction procedures. Positive outcomes were reported for 78% of participants in the reviewed studies and 88% of the participants were diagnosed with autism. Results suggest the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to decrease SIB for young children with disabilities ; however, the frequent use of packaged interventions without component analysis limits the conclusiveness of any treatment recommendation. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

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4. Hamm J, Yun J. Influence of physical activity on the health-related quality of life of young adults with and without autism spectrum disorder. Disabil Rehabil. 2017 : 1-7.

BACKGROUND : Health-related quality of life constructs has been used to understand the multiple dimensions (i.e., physical health, psychological, environment and social relationships) that affect a person’s health status. In order to improve health-related quality of life for young adults, it is important to understand the factors that influence each dimension. The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of the presence of autism spectrum disorder and physical activity on the multiple domains of health-related quality of life for young adults. METHODS : Three-hundred and twenty participants, including young adults with ASD, completed a questionnaire about their physical activity and health-related quality of life. RESULTS : Five multiple regressions revealed that the presence of autism spectrum disorder significantly predicted overall health-related quality of life, the physical health domain, psychological domain, and the environment domain. Additionally, physical activity significantly predicted each domain and overall health-related quality of life regardless of the presence of autism spectrum disorder. CONCLUSION : Practitioners should recognize the limitations that individuals with autism spectrum disorder may experience regarding their health-related quality of life, and utilize physical activity as a tool for improving health-related quality of life. Implications for Rehabilitation In order to address an individual’s overall health, practitioners must consider multiple dimensions of health-related quality of life. Autism spectrum disorders influence how people perceive multiple dimensions of their health. Physical activity is a tool for improving perceptions of the multiple dimensions of health for individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders.

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5. Macari SL, Wu GC, Powell KK, Fontenelle St, Macris DM, Chawarska K. Do Parents and Clinicians Agree on Ratings of Autism-Related Behaviors at 12 Months of Age ? A Study of Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017.

Given the emphasis on early screening for ASD, it is crucial to examine the concordance between parent report and clinician observation of autism-related behaviors. Similar items were compared from the First Year Inventory (Baranek et al. First-Year Inventory (FYI) 2.0. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2003), a parent screener for ASD, and the ADOS-2 Toddler Module (Lord et al. 2013), a standardized ASD diagnostic tool. Measures were administered concurrently to 12-month-olds at high and low risk for ASD. Results suggest that clinicians and parents rated behaviors similarly. In addition, both informants rated high-risk infants as more impaired in several social-communication behaviors. Furthermore, the format of questions impacted agreement across observers. These findings have implications for the development of a new generation of screening instruments for ASD.

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6. Trevisan DA, Roberts N, Lin C, Birmingham E. How do adults and teens with self-declared Autism Spectrum Disorder experience eye contact ? A qualitative analysis of first-hand accounts. PLoS One. 2017 ; 12(11) : e0188446.

A tendency to avoid eye contact is an early indicator of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and difficulties with eye contact often persist throughout the lifespan. Eye contact difficulties may underlie social cognitive deficits in ASD, and can create significant social and occupational barriers. Thus, this topic has received substantial research and clinical attention. In this study, we used qualitative methods to analyze self-reported experiences with eye contact as described by teens and adults with self-declared ASD. Results suggest people with a self- declared ASD diagnosis experience adverse emotional and physiological reactions, feelings of being invaded, and sensory overload while making eye contact, in addition to difficulties understanding social nuances, and difficulties receiving and sending nonverbal information. Some data support existing mindblindness frameworks, and hyperarousal or hypoarousal theories of eye contact, but we also present novel findings unaccounted for by existing frameworks. Additionally, we highlight innovative strategies people with self-declared ASD have devised to overcome or cope with their eye contact difficulties.

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