Behavior Modification : School-Based Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Janvier 2018)

samedi 6 janvier 2018

Le numéro de janvier 2018 de la revue Behavior Modification est consacré aux intervention en milieu scolaire chez les enfants avec TSA.

1. Cynthia MA, Tristram S, Susan MW. Advances in School-Based Interventions for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Introduction to the Special Issue. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 3-8.

As the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has increased, so too has research on interventions to address core and associated features of autism. Although many methodologically rigorous studies on interventions have been reported, their relevance to educators is somewaht unclear. For example, only about 32% of evidence-based strategies identifed in these reviews were conducted in k-12 settings. Current literature also is limited in that, although many studies show that interventions can improve the communication and social interaction skills of individuals with autism, most of this work has been conducted with pre-school children ; questions remain about the generality of these findings to school-aged children. Further, there are relatively few studies demonstrating effective interventions for restricted and repetitive behavior and much of this work was conducted in clinical settings. There is a need for studies documenting effective interventions that are feasible in school settings. The purpose of this special issue is two-fold. First, to highlight the need for school-based research with students with autism and second to highlight recent work delineating intervention strategies found to be effective in school settings.

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2. Chelsea KE, Robin KL, Sarah EF, Shillingsburg MA. Increasing Functional Leisure Engagement for Children With Autism Using Backward Chaining. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 9-33.

Research with individuals with disabilities has demonstrated the utility of intervention approaches to address toy play, also referred to as functional leisure engagement (FLE). Examples include prompting FLE, blocking stereotypy, and differentially reinforcing appropriate FLE with social or automatic (i.e., access to stereotypy) reinforcers. Backward chaining has yet to be evaluated, but may be useful for establishing more complex FLE. The current study employed a treatment package consisting of these components with three school-aged children with autism in a therapeutic classroom. Effects were evaluated during pretest and posttest sessions, which consisted of free access to toys in a novel setting. The percentage of session with FLE was evaluated using a multiple probe design across participants. Results showed all participants demonstrated an increase in FLE and two participants showed decreased stereotypy. Feasibility for classroom implementation is discussed.

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3. Robert LK, Kelsey O, Lynn KK. The Impact of Prior Activity History on the Influence of Restricted Repetitive Behaviors on Socialization for Children With High-Functioning Autism. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 34-57.

Research has demonstrated that incorporating restricted interests of an individual with autism into recess activities is effective at increasing socialization with typically developing peers. However, certain activity contexts may alter the reinforcing influence of the restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) depending on an individual ?s history in that activity. Using an alternating treatment design, this study examined whether an individual ?s history with an activity affected socialization. RRBs were embedded into activities with a reported positive history (i.e., prior history of positive experiences) and activities with a reported negative history (i.e., prior history of aversive experiences) for participants. Data indicated that socialization increased and remained above baseline levels when RRBs were introduced during activities with a positive history, whereas socialization was minimal when RRBs were introduced in activities with a negative history. Social significance and implications for designing activities that incorporate a child ?s RRBs are discussed.

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4. Tiffany K, Tom C, Brittany AL, Jacob JM, Regina AC. Selection and Implementation of Skill Acquisition Programs by Special Education Teachers and Staff for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 58-83.

The present investigation examined special education teachers ? selection and use of teaching strategies for receptive identification training with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their classrooms. Teachers first responded to a survey in which they provided examples of receptive identification tasks taught in their classrooms, rated the efficacy of teaching strategies, described how they determined whether skills were mastered, listed any assessments they conducted to identify relevant prerequisite skills prior to receptive identification training, described how they selected teaching strategies for use in their classrooms, and listed their years of experience as a teacher and working with children with ASD. Subsequent observations of implementation of teaching strategies during trial-based instruction occurred in a proportion of teachers ? classrooms. The results of the observations showed that participants did not consistently implement components of trial-based instruction as described in the literature, and there were differences in implementation depending on the types of skills targeted during instruction.

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5. Janine PS, Melissa JH, Stephen PK, Alexander MS. Exploring the Moderating Effects of Cognitive Abilities on Social Competence Intervention Outcomes. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 84-107.

Many populations served by special education, including those identified with autism, emotional impairments, or students identified as not ready to learn, experience social competence deficits. The Social Competence Intervention-Adolescents ? (SCI-A) methods, content, and materials were designed to be maximally pertinent and applicable to the social competence needs of early adolescents (i.e., age 11-14 years) identified as having scholastic potential but experiencing significant social competence deficits. Given the importance of establishing intervention efficacy, the current paper highlights the results from a four-year cluster randomized trial (CRT) to examine the efficacy of SCI-A (n = 146 students) relative to Business As Usual (n = 123 students) school-based programming. Educational personnel delivered all programming including both intervention and BAU conditions. Student functioning was assessed across multiple time points, including pre-, mid-, and post-intervention. Outcomes of interest included social competence behaviors, which were assessed via both systematic direct observation and teacher behavior rating scales. Data were analyzed using multilevel models, with students nested within schools. Results suggested after controlling for baseline behavior and student IQ, BAU and SCI students differed to a statistically significant degree across multiple indicators of social performance. Further consideration of standardized mean difference effect sizes revealed these between-group differences to be representative of medium effects (d > .50). Such outcomes pertained to student (a) awareness of social cues and information, and (b) capacity to appropriately interact with teachers and peers. The need for additional power and the investigation of potential moderators and mediators of social competence effectiveness are explored.

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6. Monica AS, Amanda K, Emily AW. Restricted Interests and Autism : Further Assessment of Preferences for a Variety of Leisure Items. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 108-25.

Researchers have yet to identify the conditions under which people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate restricted interests ; it is possible that the impression of restricted interests is strengthened when a limited variety of items are included in a client ?s preference assessments. This study will extend past research on preferences of children with autism by (a) examining participants ? preferences for unreplenished (familiar) play or leisure items versus items that are replenished frequently, (b) assessing if participants who prefer replenished items select items with properties that are matched or unmatched to their most preferred unreplenished item, and (c) assessing if participants who show an exclusive preference for unreplenished items will select replenished items during response-restriction and enhanced-replenished pool manipulations. Participants were four adolescents with autism and a caregiver-reported history of restricted interests. One participant selected both unreplenished (familiar) items and replenished (novel) items without further manipulations. The remaining three participants only selected replenished-matched leisure items after additional manipulations. Results are discussed in terms of the ethical and practical importance of assessing a range of potential reinforcers, particularly with clients who demonstrate restricted interests.

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7. Suzannah I, Wendy S, Michelle D, Erica B, Robin H, Susan H, David M, Connie K, Tristram S. Implementing a Manualized, Classroom Transition Intervention for Students With ASD in Underresourced Schools. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 126-47.

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public education settings experience difficulties with transitions during classroom routines, which can result in challenging behavior. Single-subject research supports techniques for transitions, but school-based approaches often require resources and training unavailable in low-resource districts, limiting implementation. We developed and evaluated the Schedules, Tools, and Activities for Transitions (STAT) program, a short-term, manualized intervention of behavioral supports to support daily routine transitions for students with ASD (K-5) in underresourced districts. We utilized a multisite, cluster-randomized, group comparison design (immediate treatment versus waitlist) with matched pairs (n = 150 students, 57 educators). Data indicated (a) no group differences for academic engagement or classroom independence, and (b) an advantage for STAT in reducing challenging behavior and increasing teacher fidelity. Results show preliminary support for an intervention that is feasible and perceived as sustainable in real-world settings.

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8. Aimee G, Shelley S, Louise Q, Brittany W. Teacher-Implemented Response Interruption and Redirection : Training, Evaluation, and Descriptive Analysis of Treatment Integrity. Behavior Modification. 2017 ; 42(1) : 148-69.

Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) is an effective intervention for decreasing stereotypy. During RIRD, contingent on occurrences of stereotypy, therapists interrupt the behavior and prompt the participant to complete an alternative response. Although RIRD has been implemented by teachers in classrooms, it requires continuous monitoring of participants to be implemented with fidelity and may be difficult for teachers to manage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of RIRD when implemented in classrooms. In addition, we evaluated if novice teaching assistants could be trained to implement RIRD. Finally, a descriptive analysis of treatment integrity errors during RIRD was conducted. Three children and teaching assistants participated. Following a written instructions baseline, the teaching assistants were trained to implement RIRD using modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. The training increased the accuracy of RIRD implementation for all participants. Incorrectly initiating and terminating RIRD were the most common treatment integrity errors observed.

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