Pubmed du 03/01/18

mercredi 3 janvier 2018

1. Al-Ayadhi L, Alhowikan A, Halepoto D. Impact of Auditory Integrative Training (AIT) on Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and Its Effect on Behavioural and Social Emotions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre. 2018.

OBJECTIVE : To explore the impact of auditory integrative training (AIT) on inflammatory biomarker transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and to assess its effect on social behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS : In this cross-sectional study 15 subjects (14 males, I female) with ASD aged 3-12 years were recruited. All subjects were screened for autism by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Plasma levels of TGF-beta1 in all subjects were measured using sandwich enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) immediately after the AIT sessions and after 1 and 3 months. Pre-AIT and post-AIT behavioural scores were also calculated for each child using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP). Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program (SPSS 21.0 for Windows, Chicago, Illinois, USA). RESULTS : Plasma levels of TGF-beta1 significantly increased to 85% immediately (20.13+/-12, p <0.05), to 95% after one month (21.2+/-11, p <0.01) and 105% after three months (22.25+/-16, p<0.01) of AIT intervention. Results also revealed that behavioural rating scales CARS, SRS and SSP improved in terms of severity of disease after AIT session. CONCLUSION : Increased plasma levels of TGF-beta1 support the therapeutic effect of AIT on TGF-beta1 followed by improvement in social awareness, social cognition, and social communication in children with ASD. Furthermore TGF-beta1was associated with the severity of all tested scores (CARS, SRS and SSP) ; if confirmed in studies on larger sample sizes, TGF-beta1 may be considered as a marker of severity of ASD and to assess efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

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2. Al-Hamdan AZ, Preetha PP, Albashaireh RN, Al-Hamdan MZ, Crosson WL. Investigating the effects of environmental factors on autism spectrum disorder in the USA using remotely sensed data. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2018.

This study aimed to assess the association between exposures to outdoor environmental factors and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence in a diverse and spatially distributed population of 8-year-old children from the USA (n = 2,097,188) using the air quality index (AQI) of the US Environmental Protection Agency as well as satellite-derived data of PM2.5 concentrations, sunlight, and maximum heat index. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether the unhealthy AQI, PM2.5, sunlight, and maximum heat index were related to the odds of ASD prevalence based on gender and race and taking into consideration the confounding factors of smoking and socioeconomic status. The logistic regression odds ratios for ASD per 10% increase in the unhealthy AQI were greater than 1 for all categories, indicating that unhealthy AQI is related to the odds of ASD prevalence. The odds ratio of ASD due to the exposure to the unhealthy AQI was higher for Asians (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.11-7.88) than that for Hispanics (OR = 1.308, 95% CI = 0.607-2.820), and it was higher for Blacks (OR = 1.398, 95% CI = 0.827-2.364) than that for Whites (OR = 1.219, 95% CI = 0.760-1.954). The odds ratio of ASD due to the unhealthy AQI was slightly higher for males (OR = 1.123, 95% CI = 0.771-1.635) than that for females (OR = 1.117, 95% CI = 0.789-1.581). The effects of the unhealthy environmental exposures on the odds ratios of ASD of this study were inconclusive (i.e., statically insignificant ; p value > 0.05) for all categories except for Asians. The odds ratios of ASD for Asians were increased by 5, 12, and 14% with increased levels of the environmental exposures of 10 mug/m(3) of PM2.5, 1000 kJ/m(2) of sunlight, and 1 degrees F of maximum heat index, respectively. The odds ratios of ASD prevalence for all categories, except for Asians, were increased with the inclusion of the smoking covariate, reflecting the effect of smoking on ASD prevalence besides the unhealthy environmental factors.

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3. Dudas RB, Lovejoy C, Cassidy S, Allison C, Smith P, Baron-Cohen S. Correction : The overlap between autistic spectrum conditions and borderline personality disorder. PLoS One. 2018 ; 13(1) : e0190727.

[This corrects the article DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0184447.].

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4. Fakhoury M. Imaging genetics in autism spectrum disorders : Linking genetics and brain imaging in the pursuit of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018 ; 80(Pt B) : 101-14.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a wide range of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions that affect an individual in several aspects of social communication and behavior. Recent advances in molecular genetic technologies have dramatically increased our understanding of ASD etiology through the identification of several autism risk genes, most of which serve important functions in synaptic plasticity and protein synthesis. However, despite significant progress in this field of research, the characterization of the neurobiological mechanisms by which common genetic risk variants might operate to give rise to ASD symptomatology has proven to be far more difficult than expected. The imaging genetics approach holds great promise for advancing our understanding of ASD etiology by bridging the gap between genetic variations and their resultant biological effects on the brain. This paper provides a conceptual overview of the contribution of genetics in ASD and discusses key findings from the emerging field of imaging genetics.

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5. Levine SZ, Kodesh A, Viktorin A, Smith L, Uher R, Reichenberg A, Sandin S. Association of Maternal Use of Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplements in the Periods Before and During Pregnancy With the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018.

Importance : The association of maternal use of folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy with the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring is unclear. Objective : To examine the associations between the use of maternal folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy and the risk of ASD in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants : A case-control cohort study of 45300 Israeli children born between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were followed up from birth to January 26, 2015, for the risk of ASD. The cases were all children diagnosed with ASD and the controls were a random sample of 33% of all live-born children. Exposures : Maternal vitamin supplements were classified for folic acid (vitamin B9), multivitamin supplements (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical A11 codes vitamins A, B, C, and D), and any combination thereof exposed in the intervals before and during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures : The association between maternal vitamin supplementation and the risk of ASD in offspring was quantified with relative risks (RRs) and their 95% CIs fitting Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results : Of the 45300 children in the study (22090 girls and 23210 boys ; mean [SD] age, 10.0 [1.4] years at the end of follow-up), 572 (1.3%) received a diagnosis of ASD. Maternal exposure to folic acid and/or multivitamin supplements before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of ASD in the offspring compared with no exposure before pregnancy (RR, 0.39 ; 95% CI, 0.30-0.50 ; P < .001). Maternal exposure to folic acid and/or multivitamin supplements during pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of ASD in offspring compared with no exposure during pregnancy (RR, 0.27 ; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33 ; P < .001). Corresponding RRs were estimated for maternal exposure to folic acid before pregnancy (RR, 0.56 ; 95% CI, 0.42-0.74 ; P = .001), maternal exposure to folic acid during pregnancy (RR, 0.32 ; 95% CI, 0.26-0.41 ; P < .001), maternal exposure to multivitamin supplements before pregnancy (RR, 0.36 ; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52 ; P < .001), and maternal exposure to multivitamin supplements during pregnancy (RR, 0.35 ; 95% CI, 0.28-0.44 ; P < .001). The results generally remained statistically significant across sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance : Maternal exposure to folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of ASD in the offspring compared with the offspring of mothers without such exposure.

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6. Novellino F, Vasta R, Alessia S, Chiriaco C, Maria S, Maurizio M, Gennarina A, Sacca V, Nicoletti G, Quattrone A. Relationship between hippocampal subfields and category cued recall in AD and PDD : A multimodal MRI study. Neuroscience. 2017.

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia (PDD), are characterized by a different mnesic failure, particularly in memory cued recall. Although hippocampal involvement has been shown in both these diseases, it remains unknown if a selective damage of specific subfields within the hippocampus may be responsible of the peculiar mnesic profile observed in AD and PDD. To explore this topic, we combined a multimodal 3T-MRI hippocampal evaluation (whole-brain T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging) with a hippocampal-targeted neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective-Reminding-Test [FCSRT]) in 22 AD subjects, 18 PDD and 17 healthy controls. Macro- and micro-structural features (volume ; shape ; mean diffusivity[MD] ; fractional anisotropy[FA]) of bilateral hippocampi (whole and subfields) were obtained. Correlations between MRI-derived parameters and neuropsychological evaluations were performed. In the comparison between AD and PDD, the multimodal analysis allowed us to identify that subiculum, CA1 and CA4-DG were differently involved in these diseases and correlated with immediate and delayed total recall items of FCSRT. Moreover, compared to controls, AD showed a reduction in almost all subfields, with a MD increase in the same regions, whereas PDD displayed a volume loss, less severe than AD, more evident in the CA2-3 and presubiculum subfields. Our study provides new evidence that hippocampal subregions had different vulnerability to damage related to AD and PDD. The combination of the in vivo analysis of hippocampal subfields with the FCSRT paradigm provided important insights into whether changes within specific hippocampal subfields are related to the different mnesic profile in AD and PDD patients.

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7. Owada K, Kojima M, Yassin W, Kuroda M, Kawakubo Y, Kuwabara H, Kano Y, Yamasue H. Computer-analyzed facial expression as a surrogate marker for autism spectrum social core symptoms. PLoS One. 2018 ; 13(1) : e0190442.

To develop novel interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) core symptoms, valid, reliable, and sensitive longitudinal outcome measures are required for detecting symptom change over time. Here, we tested whether a computerized analysis of quantitative facial expression measures could act as a marker for core ASD social symptoms. Facial expression intensity values during a semi-structured socially interactive situation extracted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were quantified by dedicated software in 18 high-functioning adult males with ASD. Controls were 17 age-, gender-, parental socioeconomic background-, and intellectual level-matched typically developing (TD) individuals. Statistical analyses determined whether values representing the strength and variability of each facial expression element differed significantly between the ASD and TD groups and whether they correlated with ADOS reciprocal social interaction scores. Compared with the TD controls, facial expressions in the ASD group appeared more "Neutral" (d = 1.02, P = 0.005, PFDR < 0.05) with less variation in Neutral expression (d = 1.08, P = 0.003, PFDR < 0.05). Their expressions were also less "Happy" (d = -0.78, P = 0.038, PFDR > 0.05) with lower variability in Happy expression (d = 1.10, P = 0.003, PFDR < 0.05). Moreover, the stronger Neutral facial expressions in the ASD participants were positively correlated with poorer ADOS reciprocal social interaction scores (rho = 0.48, P = 0.042). These findings indicate that our method for quantitatively measuring reduced facial expressivity during social interactions can be a promising marker for core ASD social symptoms.

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8. Rigas P. Up states-based developmental trajectories of the autistic cerebral cortex. Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 2018 ; 23 : 1465-86.

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder which affects information processing in the brain as the result of an abnormally developed cortex, brought about in ways that are poorly understood. The disorder is characterized by a very early onset, however, neurobiological studies at such young ages are often precluded in humans, thus, rendering respective research in appropriate animal models of the disease invaluable. The bulk of this research has focused mainly on how experimental models differ from normal rather than on when they begin to differ. However, understanding the neurobiology of autism at its onset is important for both describing and treating the disorder. Moreover, modelling human behaviours in animals is often very difficult. Therefore, in order for neurobiological research of autism to proceed it is essential to "decompose" the disorder into simpler, behavior-independent biological parameters. Here, I propose how network dynamics of local microcircuits may serve such a role in order to derive developmental trajectories of the cerebral cortex that will allow us to detect and investigate the disorder at its very beginning.

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9. Ryan G, Brady S, Holloway J, Lydon H. Increasing appropriate conversation skills using a behavioral skills training package for adults with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Journal of intellectual disabilities : JOID. 2017 : 1744629517750744.

The current research evaluates the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package used to increase appropriate conversation interactions for six adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Deficits in the area of social skills can become a significant feature for individuals with disabilities and in particular for those with ASD. A multiple probe design across participant dyads was employed to examine the effects of the intervention on conversation interactions. The BST package was delivered in small group instruction and included (i) instructions about having a conversation, (ii) modeling a conversation, (iii) practicing a conversation, and (iv) feedback on performance during each session. Results indicated that BST was effective for increasing appropriate conversation interactions for all six participants, and maintenance was evident 4 weeks post intervention. The findings were discussed in relation to the importance of social interactions and communication amongst this population.

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