Pubmed du 05/01/18

samedi 6 janvier 2018

1. Error in Source Data for Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Jama. 2018.

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2. Al-Hamdan AZ, Preetha PP, Albashaireh RN, Al-Hamdan MZ, Crosson WL. Investigating the effects of environmental factors on autism spectrum disorder in the USA using remotely sensed data. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2018.

This study aimed to assess the association between exposures to outdoor environmental factors and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence in a diverse and spatially distributed population of 8-year-old children from the USA (n = 2,097,188) using the air quality index (AQI) of the US Environmental Protection Agency as well as satellite-derived data of PM2.5 concentrations, sunlight, and maximum heat index. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether the unhealthy AQI, PM2.5, sunlight, and maximum heat index were related to the odds of ASD prevalence based on gender and race and taking into consideration the confounding factors of smoking and socioeconomic status. The logistic regression odds ratios for ASD per 10% increase in the unhealthy AQI were greater than 1 for all categories, indicating that unhealthy AQI is related to the odds of ASD prevalence. The odds ratio of ASD due to the exposure to the unhealthy AQI was higher for Asians (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.11-7.88) than that for Hispanics (OR = 1.308, 95% CI = 0.607-2.820), and it was higher for Blacks (OR = 1.398, 95% CI = 0.827-2.364) than that for Whites (OR = 1.219, 95% CI = 0.760-1.954). The odds ratio of ASD due to the unhealthy AQI was slightly higher for males (OR = 1.123, 95% CI = 0.771-1.635) than that for females (OR = 1.117, 95% CI = 0.789-1.581). The effects of the unhealthy environmental exposures on the odds ratios of ASD of this study were inconclusive (i.e., statically insignificant ; p value > 0.05) for all categories except for Asians. The odds ratios of ASD for Asians were increased by 5, 12, and 14% with increased levels of the environmental exposures of 10 mug/m(3) of PM2.5, 1000 kJ/m(2) of sunlight, and 1 degrees F of maximum heat index, respectively. The odds ratios of ASD prevalence for all categories, except for Asians, were increased with the inclusion of the smoking covariate, reflecting the effect of smoking on ASD prevalence besides the unhealthy environmental factors.

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3. Levine SZ, Kodesh A, Viktorin A, Smith L, Uher R, Reichenberg A, Sandin S. Association of Maternal Use of Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplements in the Periods Before and During Pregnancy With the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018.

Importance : The association of maternal use of folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy with the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring is unclear. Objective : To examine the associations between the use of maternal folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy and the risk of ASD in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants : A case-control cohort study of 45300 Israeli children born between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were followed up from birth to January 26, 2015, for the risk of ASD. The cases were all children diagnosed with ASD and the controls were a random sample of 33% of all live-born children. Exposures : Maternal vitamin supplements were classified for folic acid (vitamin B9), multivitamin supplements (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical A11 codes vitamins A, B, C, and D), and any combination thereof exposed in the intervals before and during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures : The association between maternal vitamin supplementation and the risk of ASD in offspring was quantified with relative risks (RRs) and their 95% CIs fitting Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results : Of the 45300 children in the study (22090 girls and 23210 boys ; mean [SD] age, 10.0 [1.4] years at the end of follow-up), 572 (1.3%) received a diagnosis of ASD. Maternal exposure to folic acid and/or multivitamin supplements before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of ASD in the offspring compared with no exposure before pregnancy (RR, 0.39 ; 95% CI, 0.30-0.50 ; P < .001). Maternal exposure to folic acid and/or multivitamin supplements during pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with a lower likelihood of ASD in offspring compared with no exposure during pregnancy (RR, 0.27 ; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33 ; P < .001). Corresponding RRs were estimated for maternal exposure to folic acid before pregnancy (RR, 0.56 ; 95% CI, 0.42-0.74 ; P = .001), maternal exposure to folic acid during pregnancy (RR, 0.32 ; 95% CI, 0.26-0.41 ; P < .001), maternal exposure to multivitamin supplements before pregnancy (RR, 0.36 ; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52 ; P < .001), and maternal exposure to multivitamin supplements during pregnancy (RR, 0.35 ; 95% CI, 0.28-0.44 ; P < .001). The results generally remained statistically significant across sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance : Maternal exposure to folic acid and multivitamin supplements before and during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of ASD in the offspring compared with the offspring of mothers without such exposure.

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4. Tomasi D, Volkow ND. Reduced Local and Increased Long-Range Functional Connectivity of the Thalamus in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cereb Cortex. 2017.

It is hypothesized that brain network abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reflect local overconnectivity and long-range underconnectivity. However, this is not a consistent finding in recent studies, which could reflect the developmental nature and the heterogeneity of ASD. Here, we tested 565 ASD and 602 neurotypical (NT) males, and 91 ASD and 233 NT females using local functional connectivity density (lFCD) mapping and seed-voxel correlation analyses to assess how local and long-range connectivities differ in ASD. Compared with NT males, ASD males had lower and weaker age-related increases in thalamic lFCD, which were associated with symptoms of autism. Post-hoc seed-voxel correlation analyses for the thalamus cluster revealed stronger connectivity with auditory, somatosensory, motoric, and interoceptive cortices for ASD than for NT, both in males and in females, which decreased with age in both ASD and NT. These results document the disruption of local thalamic connectivity and dysregulation of thalamo-cortical networks, which might contribute to perceptual, motoric, and interoceptive impairments, and are also consistent with a developmental delay in functional connectivity in ASD.

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5. Xu G, Strathearn L, Liu B, Bao W. Corrected Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among US Children and Adolescents. Jama. 2018.

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6. Zahorodny W, Shenouda J, Mehta U, Yee E, Garcia P, Rajan M, Goldfarb M. Preliminary Evaluation of a Brief Autism Screener for Young Children. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018.

OBJECTIVE : Our objective was to assess the operating characteristics of the Psychological Development Questionnaire-1 (PDQ-1), an autism screener for use with young children. METHODS : In Phase 1, we evaluated the concordance of the PDQ-1 with established autism scales, determined test-retest reliability, and identified a risk threshold score. In Phase 2, a population of 1959 toddler-age children was prospectively screened through multiple pediatric practices in a diverse metropolitan region, using the new instrument. Screen-positive children were referred for diagnostic evaluation. Screened children received follow-up at age 4 years to identify autism cases missed by screening and to specify the scale’s psychometric properties. RESULTS : By screening a diverse population of low risk children, age 18 to 36 months, with the PDQ-1, we detected individuals with autism who had not come to professional attention. Overall, the PDQ-1 showed a positive predictive value (PPV) of 91%, with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 99% in a low risk population. High specificity, good sensitivity, and PPV were observed across the 18 to 36 month age-range. CONCLUSION : The findings provide preliminary empirical support for this parent report-based indicator of toddler psychological development and suggest that the PDQ-1 may be a useful supplement to developmental surveillance of autism. Additional research is needed with high risk samples and large, unselected populations under real-world conditions.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

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