Pubmed du 06/01/18

samedi 6 janvier 2018

1. Esnafoglu E, Irende I. Decreased plasma agmatine levels in autistic subjects. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2018.

Agmatine is a polyamine endogenously synthesized from arginine and is considered to be a new neurotransmitter. Agmatine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as anxiety disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Agmatine also possesses anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Furthermore, agmatine inhibits the nitric oxide synthase enzyme and exerts antagonist effects on NMDA, alpha-2, and imidazoline receptors. Considering these characteristics, the present study investigated whether agmatine plays a role in the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Therefore, plasma agmatine levels were evaluated in 34 patients with ASD and 28 non-ASD controls. Plasma agmatine levels were measured using the HPLC method. The study found remarkably lower agmatine levels in patients with ASD compared with the non-ASD control group (p < 0.001). These findings support the notion that agmatine might contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD and may serve as a new target for treatment.

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2. Fitzpatrick P. The Future of Autism Research : Dynamic and Process-Oriented Approaches. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 ; 57(1) : 16-7.

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3. Li M, Huang TY, Ye J, Zhao S, Chen LS. Perceived recurrence risk of having another affected child : A survey on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders in Taiwan. Patient education and counseling. 2017.

OBJECTIVE : Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have a significant genetic predisposition. The recurrence risk of ASD ranges from 3% to 18.7% for parents having one affected child. As recurrence risk perceptions have important implications for family planning, prenatal preparation, and future children managements, absolute and relative recurrence risk perceptions of having another affected child among Taiwanese parents of children with ASD were assessed. METHODS : This study collected quantitative survey data from 415 Taiwanese parents who had one child with ASD. RESULTS : Participants reported their absolute recurrence risk of having another child with ASD was 33.4%. Compared to other parents with normally-developing children, merely 49.8% of participants perceived higher relative recurrence risk. By controlling for the sociodemographic characteristics, participants’ absolute recurrence risk perceptions were significantly predicted by their perceived genetic causes of ASD and family history of ASD. Yet, participants’ relative recurrence risk perceptions were significantly associated with only the perceived genetic etiology. CONCLUSION : Taiwanese parents of children diagnosed with ASD had an incorrect understanding of their absolute and relative recurrence risks. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS : To facilitate informed decision-making in family planning, healthcare providers should discuss absolute and relative recurrence risks as well as genetic causes of ASD with this particular group.

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4. Rom AL, Wu CS, Olsen J, Jawaheer D, Hetland ML, Morch LS. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring : A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 ; 57(1) : 28-32.e1.

OBJECTIVE : Maternal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. We assessed the potential influence of both maternal and paternal RA on the risk of ASD in offspring to disentangle the influence of genetic inheritance from other conditions potentially leading to fetal programming. METHOD : The nationwide cohort study included all children born alive from 1977 to 2008 in Denmark (N = 1,917,723). Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard rate ratios (HR) of ASD in offspring exposed to maternal or paternal RA, compared to unexposed children. RESULTS : Maternal RA was associated with an approximately 30% increased risk of ASD in the offspring (HR = 1.31 and 95% CI = 1.06-1.63). Also, paternal RA seemed to increase the risk of ASD by approximately 30% (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.97-1.82). CONCLUSION : Our findings suggest maternal as well as paternal RA to be associated with an increased risk of ASD in the offspring, indicating that genetic factors associated with RA may also play a role in the etiology of ASD in children of parents with RA.

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5. Sahin NT, Keshav NU, Salisbury JP, Vahabzadeh A. Second Version of Google Glass as a Wearable Socio-Affective Aid : Positive School Desirability, High Usability, and Theoretical Framework in a Sample of Children with Autism. JMIR human factors. 2018 ; 5(1) : e1.

BACKGROUND : Computerized smartglasses are being developed as an assistive technology for daily activities in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While smartglasses may be able to help with educational and behavioral needs, their usability and acceptability in children with ASD is largely unknown. There have been reports of negative social perceptions surrounding smartglasses use in mainstream populations, a concern given that assistive technologies may already carry their own stigma. Children with ASD may also have a range of additional behavioral, developmental, and social challenges when asked to use this emerging technology in school and home settings. OBJECTIVE : The usability and acceptability of Glass Enterprise Edition (Glass), the successor to Google Glass smartglasses, were explored in children with ASD and their caregivers. METHODS : Eight children with ASD and their caregivers were recruited to attend a demonstration session with Glass smartglasses the week they were publicly released. The children had a wide range of ability, including limited speech to speaking, and represented a full range of school ages (6 to 17 years). Children and caregivers were interviewed about their experience of using the smartglasses and whether they would use them at school and home. RESULTS : All 8 children succeeded in using Glass and did not feel stressed (8/8, 100%) or experience any overwhelming sensory or emotional issues during the session (8/8, 100%). All 8 children (8/8, 100%) endorsed that they would be willing to wear and use the device in both home and school settings. Caregivers felt the experience was fun for the children (8/8, 100%), and most caregivers felt the experience was better than they had expected (6/8, 75%). CONCLUSIONS : A wide age and ability range of children with ASD used Glass immediately after it was released and found it to be usable and acceptable. Despite concerns about potential stigma or social acceptability, all of the children were prepared to use the technology in both home and school settings. Encouragingly, most caregivers noted a very positive response. There were no behavioral, developmental, or social- or stigma-related concerns during or after the session. Smartglasses may be a useful future technology for children with ASD and are readily accepted for use by children with ASD and their caregivers.

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6. Turban JL, van Schalkwyk GI. "Gender Dysphoria" and Autism Spectrum Disorder : Is the Link Real ?. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 ; 57(1) : 8-9.e2.

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7. Vallee A, Vallee JN. Warburg effect hypothesis in autism Spectrum disorders. Molecular brain. 2018 ; 11(1) : 1.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. In altered cells, metabolic enzymes are modified by the dysregulation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway. In ASD, the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated. We focus this review on the hypothesis of Warburg effect stimulated by the overexpression of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway in ASD. Upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway induces aerobic glycolysis, named Warburg effect, through activation of glucose transporter (Glut), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1), monocarboxylate lactate transporter 1 (MCT-1), lactate dehydrogenase kinase-A (LDH-A) and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH). The aerobic glycolysis consists to a supply of a large part of glucose into lactate regardless of oxygen. Aerobic glycolysis is less efficient in terms of ATP production than oxidative phosphorylation because of the shunt of the TCA cycle. Dysregulation of energetic metabolism might promote cell deregulation and progression of ASD. Warburg effect regulation could be an attractive target for developing therapeutic interventions in ASD.

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8. Wang Q, DiNicola L, Heymann P, Hampson M, Chawarska K. Impaired Value Learning for Faces in Preschoolers With Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 ; 57(1) : 33-40.

OBJECTIVE : One of the common findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited selective attention toward social objects, such as faces. Evidence from both human and nonhuman primate studies suggests that selection of objects for processing is guided by the appraisal of object values. We hypothesized that impairments in selective attention in ASD may reflect a disruption of a system supporting learning about object values in the social domain. METHOD : We examined value learning in social (faces) and nonsocial (fractals) domains in preschoolers with ASD (n = 25) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 28), using a novel value learning task implemented on a gaze-contingent eye-tracking platform consisting of value learning and a selective attention choice test. RESULTS : Children with ASD performed more poorly than TD controls on the social value learning task, but both groups performed similarly on the nonsocial task. Within-group comparisons indicated that value learning in TD children was enhanced on the social compared to the nonsocial task, but no such enhancement was seen in children with ASD. Performance in the social and nonsocial conditions was correlated in the ASD but not in the TD group. CONCLUSION : The study provides support for a domain-specific impairment in value learning for faces in ASD, and suggests that, in ASD, value learning in social and nonsocial domains may rely on a shared mechanism. These findings have implications both for models of selective social attention deficits in autism and for identification of novel treatment targets.

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