Pubmed du 19/01/18

vendredi 19 janvier 2018

1. Bara TS, Farias AC, Felden EP, Cordeiro ML. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher’s Report Form for assessing autism spectrum disorder in preschool-aged children. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018 ; 14 : 95-102.

Background : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social, behavioral, and communication impairments with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 68 school-aged children. There is a need for objective and easily applicable instruments for early identification of autistic children to enable initiation of early interventions during a very sensitive period of brain development and, consequently, optimize prognosis. Here, we tested the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Caregiver-Teacher’s Report Form (C-TRF) scales for assessing ASD in Brazil, where ASD screening research is emergent. Subjects and methods : A total of 70 children (2-5 years old, both sexes) were enrolled, including an ASD group (n=39) and a non-ASD control group (n=31). The preschool versions of the CBCL and C-TRF were applied. The CBCL and C-TRF results were compared between the ASD and non-ASD control groups with Mann-Whitney U tests and receiver operating characteristic analyses. Results : The CBCL and C-TRF were found to have moderate accuracy for the dimensions withdrawn and autism spectrum problems, and to correlate with each other. Conclusion : The CBCL and C-TRF may aid in early ASD detection.

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2. Crossman MK, Warfield ME, Kotelchuck M, Hauser-Cram P, Parish SL. Associations Between Early Intervention Home Visits, Family Relationships and Competence for Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities. Maternal and child health journal. 2018.

Objectives To examine the association between intensity of home visits in early intervention (EI), perceived helpfulness of home visits in EI, and positive family relationships as predictors of maternal competence at age 3, as well as moderating effects of predictors, controlling for child characteristics, family demographics, and negative life events. Methods Data were drawn from the Early Intervention Collaborative Study (EICS), a 24-year longitudinal investigation of approximately 190 families of children with developmental disabilities who participated in EI programs in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. The primary analytic strategy was multivariable regression modeling. Each independent predictor was tested individually and then all together to build the final model. Interactions between independent predictors were also examined. Results After controlling for child and family characteristics and negative life events, the intensity of home visits was not significantly associated with maternal competence at age 3. However, the helpfulness of home visits (beta = 2.94, S.E. = 1.12, p < .01) and positive family relationships (beta = 5.11, S.E. = 1.08, p < .001) were associated with higher maternal competence when the child was 3 years old. Conclusions for Practice Recommendations for programs and policy include collecting life course data on families, particularly on their family relationships and experiences in EI and home visiting, assessing family relationships at the beginning of EI using a strengths-based perspective, and closely monitoring the quality of services.

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3. Eigsti IM, de Marchena A. Perspectives on gesture from autism spectrum disorder : Alterations in timing and function. The Behavioral and brain sciences. 2017 ; 40 : e53.

The target article highlights the utility of new technology to study sign language and gesture. Research in special populations - specifically, individuals with autism spectrum disorder, ASD - may further illuminate sign/gesture similarities and differences and lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of growth and change. Even verbally fluent speakers with ASD display distinctive qualities in sign and gesture.

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4. Fluegge K. Re : Folate status and autism spectrum disorders. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2018.

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5. Gerdts J, Mancini J, Fox E, Rhoads C, Ward T, Easley E, Bernier RA. Interdisciplinary Team Evaluation : An Effective Method for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018.

OBJECTIVE : The objective of this research is to assess the feasibility of an interdisciplinary team diagnostic assessment model for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD : Medical records from 366 patients evaluated for ASD at the Seattle Children’s Autism Center (SCAC) were reviewed. ASD diagnostic outcomes, provider satisfaction, engagement in follow-up care, billed time, and reimbursement amounts were compared in patients evaluated through an interdisciplinary team approach (n = 91) with those seen in multidisciplinary evaluations led by either a psychologist (n = 165) or a physician (n = 110). RESULTS : Diagnostic determination was made in 90% of patients evaluated through the interdisciplinary team model in a single day. Rates of ASD diagnosis were similar across the 3 tracks, ranging from 61% to 72%. Demographic characteristics did not impact the likelihood of ASD diagnosis. Rates of patient follow-up care and provider satisfaction were significantly higher in interdisciplinary versus multidisciplinary teams. Interdisciplinary team evaluations billed 1.8 fewer hours yet generated more net hourly clinic income compared with psychology-led multidisciplinary evaluations. CONCLUSION : An interdisciplinary team approach, focusing on ruling-in or ruling-out ASD, was sufficient to determine ASD diagnosis in most patients seen at the SCAC Interdisciplinary teams generated more clinic income and decreased the time spent in evaluation compared with a psychology-led approach. They did so while maintaining consistency in diagnostic rates, demonstrating increased provider satisfaction and an increased likelihood of engagement in follow-up care.

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6. Jin Y, Choi J, Won J, Hong Y. The Relationship between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Melatonin during Fetal Development. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2018 ; 23(1).

The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment. Melatonin synthesis is frequently impaired in patients with ASD. The hormone reduces oxidative stress, which is harmful to the central nervous system. Therefore, the neuroprotective and circadian entraining roles of melatonin may reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD.

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7. Le Normand MT, Blanc R, Caldani S, Bonnet-Brilhault F. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical linguistics & phonetics. 2018 : 1-15.

Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

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8. Litchke LG, Liu T, Castro S. Effects of Multimodal Mandala Yoga on Social and Emotional Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder : An Exploratory Study. International journal of yoga. 2018 ; 11(1) : 59-65.

Context : Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. Aims : The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Subjects and Methods : Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks. Multimodal Mandala yoga comprised 26 circular partner/group poses, color and tracing sheets, rhythmic chanting, yoga cards, and games. Treatment and Research Institute for ASD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA) scores were collected before and after the eight yoga sessions. The Modified Facial Mood Scale (MFMS) was used to observe mood changes before and after each yoga class. Paired sample t-tests were conducted on TSSA and MFMS scores to compare social and emotional differences post the 4-week camp. Narrative field notes were documented after each of the eight yoga sessions. Results : A significant improvement from pre- to post-test was found in overall TSSA (t(4) = -5.744, P = 0.005) and on respondent to initiation (t(4) = -3.726, P = 0.020), initiating interaction (t(4) = -8.5, P = 0.039), and affective understanding and perspective taking subscales (t(4) = -5.171 P = 0.007). Youth’s MFMS scores increased from 80% to 100% at the end of eight yoga sessions demonstrating a pleasant or positive mood. Thematic analysis of the narrative notes identified three key factors associated with the yoga experience : (a) enhanced mood and emotional expression, (b) increased empathy toward others, and (c) improved teamwork skills. Conclusion : This multimodal Mandala yoga training has implication for developing positive social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.

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9. Mazurek MO, Carlson C, Baker-Ericzen M, Butter E, Norris M, Kanne S. Construct Validity of the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

The Autism Impact Measure (AIM) was designed to track incremental change in frequency and impact of core ASD symptoms. The current study examined the structural and convergent validity of the AIM in a large sample of children with ASD. The results of a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a final model with five theoretically and empirically meaningful subdomains : Repetitive Behavior, Atypical Behavior, Communication, Social Reciprocity, and Peer Interaction. The final model showed very good fit both overall and for each of the five factors, indicating excellent structural validity. AIM subdomain scores were significantly correlated with measures of similar constructs across all five domains. The results provide further support for the psychometric properties of the AIM.

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10. Shen Y, Dong H, Lu X, Lian N, Xun G, Shi L, Xiao L, Zhao J, Ou J. Associations among maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain and risk of autism in the Han Chinese population. BMC Psychiatry. 2018 ; 18(1) : 11.

BACKGROUND : Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with an unclear etiology. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of autism. The current study explores the associations among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and the risk of autism in the Han Chinese population. METHODS : Demographic information, a basic medical history and information regarding maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy conditions were collected from the parents of 705 Han Chinese children with autism and 2236 unrelated typically developing children. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the relationship among pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and the occurrence of autism. The interaction between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG was analyzed by performing stratification analyses using a logistic model. RESULTS : After adjusting for the children’s gender, parental age and family annual income, excessive GWG was associated with autism risk in the entire sample (OR = 1.327, 95% CI : 1.021-1.725), whereas the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and autism was not significant. According to the stratification analyses, excessive GWG increased the risk of autism in overweight/obese mothers (OR = 2.468, 95% CI : 1.102-5.526) but not in underweight or normal weight mothers. CONCLUSIONS : The maternal pre-pregnancy BMI might not be independently associated with autism risk. However, excessive GWG might increase the autism risk of offspring of overweight and obese mothers.

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11. Takata A, Miyake N, Tsurusaki Y, Fukai R, Miyatake S, Koshimizu E, Kushima I, Okada T, Morikawa M, Uno Y, Ishizuka K, Nakamura K, Tsujii M, Yoshikawa T, Toyota T, Okamoto N, Hiraki Y, Hashimoto R, Yasuda Y, Saitoh S, Ohashi K, Sakai Y, Ohga S, Hara T, Kato M, Nakamura K, Ito A, Seiwa C, Shirahata E, Osaka H, Matsumoto A, Takeshita S, Tohyama J, Saikusa T, Matsuishi T, Nakamura T, Tsuboi T, Kato T, Suzuki T, Saitsu H, Nakashima M, Mizuguchi T, Tanaka F, Mori N, Ozaki N, Matsumoto N. Integrative Analyses of De Novo Mutations Provide Deeper Biological Insights into Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cell reports. 2018 ; 22(3) : 734-47.

Recent studies have established important roles of de novo mutations (DNMs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we analyze DNMs in 262 ASD probands of Japanese origin and confirm the "de novo paradigm" of ASDs across ethnicities. Based on this consistency, we combine the lists of damaging DNMs in our and published ASD cohorts (total number of trios, 4,244) and perform integrative bioinformatics analyses. Besides replicating the findings of previous studies, our analyses highlight ATP-binding genes and fetal cerebellar/striatal circuits. Analysis of individual genes identified 61 genes enriched for damaging DNMs, including ten genes for which our dataset now contributes to statistical significance. Screening of compounds altering the expression of genes hit by damaging DNMs reveals a global downregulating effect of valproic acid, a known risk factor for ASDs, whereas cardiac glycosides upregulate these genes. Collectively, our integrative approach provides deeper biological and potential medical insights into ASDs.

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12. Zhang Z, Yu L, Li S, Liu J. Association Study of Polymorphisms in Genes Relevant to Vitamin B12 and Folate Metabolism with Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Han Chinese Population. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2018 ; 24 : 370-6.

BACKGROUND Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This case-control study examined the association between childhood ASD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved with vitamin B12 and folate metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Genotypes of transcobalamin 2 (TCN2) rs1801198, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133 were examined in 201 children with ASD and 200 healthy controls from the Han Chinese population. RESULTS Our results showed no association of all examined SNPs with childhood ASD and its severity. CONCLUSIONS None of the examined SNPs were a risk factor for the susceptibility to childhood ASD and severity of the disease in a Han Chinese population.

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