Pubmed du 20/01/18

samedi 20 janvier 2018

1. Belmonte MK. Obligatory Processing of Task-Irrelevant Stimuli : A Hallmark of Autistic Cognitive Style Within and Beyond the Diagnosis. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 ; 2(6) : 461-3.

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2. Burris JL, Barry-Anwar RA, Sims RN, Hagerman RJ, Tassone F, Rivera SM. Children With Fragile X Syndrome Display Threat-Specific Biases Toward Emotion. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 ; 2(6) : 487-92.

BACKGROUND : Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by a silencing of the FMR1 gene that results in a loss or absence of the gene’s protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein. The phenotype of FXS is consistently associated with heightened anxiety, although no previous study has investigated attentional bias toward threat, a hallmark of anxiety disorders, in individuals with FXS. METHODS : The current study employed a passive-viewing eye-tracking version of the dot probe task to investigate attentional biases toward emotional faces in young children with FXS (n = 47) and without FXS (n = 94). RESULTS : We found that the FXS group showed a significantly greater bias toward threatening emotions than toward positive emotions. This threat specificity was not seen in either a mental age-matched group or a chronological age-matched group of typically developing children. Unlike the typically developing groups, the FXS group showed no bias toward positive emotion. CONCLUSIONS : The current study shows that children with FXS have a significant bias toward threatening information, an attentional profile that has been linked with anxiety. It also supports the use of eye-tracking methodology to index neural and attentional responses in young children with FXS.

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3. Cauda F, Nani A, Costa T, Palermo S, Tatu K, Manuello J, Duca S, Fox PT, Keller R. The morphometric co-atrophy networking of schizophrenia, autistic and obsessive spectrum disorders. Hum Brain Mapp. 2018.

By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration. Second, the clusters of co-altered areas form a net of alterations that can be defined as morphometric co-alteration network or co-atrophy network (in the case of gray matter decreases). Third, within this network certain cerebral areas can be identified as pathoconnectivity hubs, the alteration of which is supposed to enhance the development of neuronal abnormalities. Fourth, within the morphometric co-atrophy network of SCZD, ASD, and OCSD, a subnetwork composed of eleven highly connected nodes can be distinguished. This subnetwork encompasses the anterior insulae, inferior frontal areas, left superior temporal areas, left parahippocampal regions, left thalamus and right precentral gyri. Fifth, the co-altered areas also exhibit a normal structural covariance pattern which overlaps, for some of these areas (like the insulae), the co-alteration pattern. These findings reveal that, similarly to neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric disorders are characterized by anatomical alterations that distribute according to connectivity constraints so as to form identifiable morphometric co-atrophy patterns.

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4. Fluegge K. Re : Folate status and autism spectrum disorders. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2018.

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5. Herrington JD, Maddox BB, McVey AJ, Franklin ME, Yerys BE, Miller JS, Schultz RT. Negative Valence in Autism Spectrum Disorder : The Relationship Between Amygdala Activity, Selective Attention, and Co-occurring Anxiety. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 ; 2(6) : 510-7.

BACKGROUND : A critical agenda of the National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative is establishing whether domains within the RDoC matrix are truly transdiagnostic. Rates of anxiety disorders are elevated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is unclear whether the same mechanisms contribute to anxiety in individuals with and without ASD. As changes in selective attention are a hallmark of anxiety disorders in non-ASD samples, the identification of these changes in ASD would support the transdiagnostic nature of anxiety. METHODS : This functional magnetic resonance imaging study focused on the negative valence domain from RDoC (manifest as anxiety symptoms) in youth with ASD (n = 38) and typically developing control participants (n = 25). The task required selective attention toward and away from social information (faces) with negative and neutral affect. Participants underwent in-depth characterization for both anxiety and ASD symptoms. RESULTS : Dimensional and categorical measures of anxiety were significantly related to increased amygdala activation-evidence of enhanced attentional capture by social information. CONCLUSIONS : This pattern fits with decades of research among non-ASD samples using selective attention and attentional bias paradigms, suggesting that anxiety in ASD shares mechanisms with anxiety alone. Overall, results from this study support the transdiagnostic nature of the negative valence domain from RDoC and increase the likelihood that anxiety in ASD should be responsive to interventions targeting maladaptive responses to negative information.

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6. Lynch CJ, Breeden AL, You X, Ludlum R, Gaillard WD, Kenworthy L, Vaidya CJ. Executive Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder Is Associated With a Failure to Modulate Frontoparietal-insular Hub Architecture. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 ; 2(6) : 537-45.

BACKGROUND : Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior. METHODS : Seventy-five 7- to 13-year-old children with ASD (n = 35) and age- and IQ-matched typically developing control subjects (n = 40) completed both a resting-state and a selective attention task functional magnetic resonance imaging session. We assessed changes in the participation coefficient, a graph theory metric indexing hubness, of 264 brain regions comprising 12 functional networks between the two sessions. Parent reported executive impairment in everyday life was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. RESULTS : The participation coefficient of the frontoparietal-insular cortex, including core nodes of the frontoparietal control and salience networks, significantly increased in typically developing children but not in children with ASD during the task relative to rest. Change in frontoparietal-insular participation coefficient predicted Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function scores indexing the ability to attend to task-oriented output, plan and organize, and sustain working memory. CONCLUSIONS : Our results suggest that executive impairments in ASD emerge from a failure of frontoparietal-insular control regions to function as adaptive and integrative hubs in the brain’s functional network architecture. Our results also demonstrate the utility of examining dynamic network function for elucidating potential biomarkers for disorders with comorbid executive dysfunction.

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7. Sehlin H, Hedman Ahlstrom B, Andersson G, Wentz E. Experiences of an internet-based support and coaching model for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and autism spectrum disorder -a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry. 2018 ; 18(1) : 15.

BACKGROUND : There is a great demand for non-medical treatment and support targeting the needs of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is also a lack of qualitative studies providing in-depth insight into these individuals’ own experiences within this area. The current study aimed to explore how adolescents and young adults with ADHD, ASD or both experienced taking part in an internet-based support and coaching intervention. METHODS : Sixteen participants with ASD, ADHD or both who had participated in an 8-week internet-based support and coaching model, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS : Analysis yielded three themes ; Deciding to participate, Taking part in the coaching process and The significance of format. Various motives for joining were expressed by participants, such as viewing the technology as familiar and appealing and expecting it to be better suited to their situation. There was also a previously unfulfilled need for support among participants. In deciding to take part in the intervention the coaches’ competence and knowledge were considered essential, often in the light of previously negative experiences. Taking part in the coaching process meant feeling reassured by having someone to turn to in view of shared obstacles to seeking and receiving help. The support was used for talking through and receiving advice on matters related to their diagnosis. Findings further revealed appreciation for aspects relating to the format such as communicating through the written word, being in one’s own home and an experience of immediacy. Some disadvantages were voiced including incomplete personal interaction and failing technology. There were also suggestions for greater flexibility. CONCLUSIONS : The in-depth qualitative data obtained from this study suggest that the current model of support and the internet-based format have specific qualities that could play an important role in the support of adolescents and young adults with ADHD and ASD. Although not a replacement for face-to-face interaction, it could be a promising complement or alternative to other support and treatment options. TRIAL REGISTRATION : "Internet-based Support for Young People with ADHD and Autism - a Controlled Study" retrospectively registered in www.clinicaltrials.gov ( ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier : NCT02300597 ) at 2014-11-10.

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8. Zhang Z, Yu L, Li S, Liu J. Association Study of Polymorphisms in Genes Relevant to Vitamin B12 and Folate Metabolism with Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Han Chinese Population. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2018 ; 24 : 370-6.

BACKGROUND Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This case-control study examined the association between childhood ASD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved with vitamin B12 and folate metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Genotypes of transcobalamin 2 (TCN2) rs1801198, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133 were examined in 201 children with ASD and 200 healthy controls from the Han Chinese population. RESULTS Our results showed no association of all examined SNPs with childhood ASD and its severity. CONCLUSIONS None of the examined SNPs were a risk factor for the susceptibility to childhood ASD and severity of the disease in a Han Chinese population.

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