Pubmed du 29/08/09

lundi 31 août 2009

1. Gulsrud AC, Jahromi LB, Kasari C. The Co-Regulation of Emotions Between Mothers and their Children with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Aug 28)

2. Hagberg BS, Miniscalco C, Gillberg C. .Clinic attenders with autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder : cognitive profile at school age and its relationship to preschool indicators of language delay Res Dev Disabil ;2009 (Aug 25)

Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile specifically to the age at which these children were first flagged up (or not) as suspected from language delay during the preschool years. Forty clinic children with ASD, ADHD, or the combination of the two (without clinical suspicion of learning disability) were assessed cognitively and as regards language development and language function at a mean age of 7.3 years. They were contrasted with a group of 21 children from the community who had been flagged at 2.5 years as suspected of language delay, and who had been followed up neuropsyhiatrically/neuropsychologically and in respect of language at a mean age of 7.9 years. Mean WISC-III full scale IQ was lower than population norms (in spite of the exclusion in both samples of cases with obvious learning disability) and similar across diagnostic groups (ASD and ADHD), and across settings (clinic and community). WISC-III Kaufman factor profiles separated the diagnostic groups as regards Perceptual Organisation. Early concern about language delay was a strong predictor of lower IQ and of distinguishing between "pure" cases of ASD and ADHD. School age clinic children who present with ASD and ADHD have a similar cognitive and early language development profile as do those children from the community, followed prospectively, who present with a suspicion of early preschool language delay and are shown at school age to suffer from ASD or ADHD. Concern about early language delay in the preschool age should prompt assessments (psychiatric and cognitively) for ASD and ADHD in a multidisciplinary setting much more often than is currently the case. In many cases early language delay, even in the absence of clear learning disability should be taken as a signal that - regardless of specific diagnosis - intellectual functioning might be in the low average range.

3. Ming X, Walters AS. Autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sleep disorders. Curr Opin Pulm Med ;2009 (Aug 26)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW : There is increased awareness of sleep disorders and their complexity in developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review is focused on the latest reports of research on sleep disorders in these two developmental disorders. RECENT FINDINGS : Sleep disruptions such as prolonged sleep onset latency, sleep fragmentation, and increased daytime sleepiness are repeatedly described in both ASD and ADHD. Parasomnias are common in ASD, but rarely studied in ADHD. Sleep disordered breathing and restless legs syndrome have been consistently associated with ADHD. Abnormal sleep architectures, including sleep fragmentation and rapid eye movement sleep abnormality, are reported in both ASD and ADHD. The impact of psychiatric comorbidity on sleep disorders is considered in recent studies. SUMMARY : Sleep disorders are common in both ASD and ADHD. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders should improve daytime behaviors and well being of these individuals and their families. Further research on clinical characteristics and sleep architecture using well characterized and better-selected patient populations are warranted for both ASD and ADHD. Longitudinal study of sleep disorders and the treatment effects will provide a better understanding of the relationship between sleep disorders and the developmental disorders.

4. Mostafa GA, Shehab AA, Fouad NR. Frequency of CD4+CD25high Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Egyptian Children With Autism. J Child Neurol ;2009 (Aug 27)

Autoimmunity may have a role in autism, although the origins of autoimmunity in autism are unknown. CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells play an important role in the establishment of immunological self-tolerance, thereby preventing autoimmunity. The authors are the first to study the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells in the blood of 30 autistic and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Patients with autism had significantly lower frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells than healthy children (P < .001). These cells were deficient in 73.3% of children with autism. Autistic patients with allergic manifestations (40%) and those with a family history of autoimmunity (53.3%) had a significantly lower frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells than those without (P < .01 and P < .001, respectively). In conclusion, CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells are deficient in many children with autism. Deficiency of these cells may contribute to autoimmunity in a subgroup of children with autism. Consequently, CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells could be new potential therapeutic targets in these patients.

5. Williams EL, Casanova MF. Autism and dyslexia : A spectrum of cognitive styles as defined by minicolumnar morphometry. Med Hypotheses ;2009 (Aug 25)

There is a continuum of cognitive styles amongst humans, defined by differences in minicolumnar numbers/width and arcuate/commissural white matter connectivities. Specifically, it is the connectivity within and between modular cortical circuits that defines conditions such as autism and developmental dyslexia. In autism, a model of local hyperconnectivity and long-range hypoconnectivity explains many of the behavioral and cognitive traits present in the condition, while the inverse arrangement of local hypoconnectivity and long-range hyperconnectivity in dyslexia sheds light on that condition as well. We propose that the cognitive styles present in autism and developmental dyslexia typify the extremes of a minicolumnar spectrum in humans.


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