Advances in Autism : 2018 - Issue 1

jeudi 22 février 2018

1. Eddie C, Jane M. Editorial. Advances in Autism ;2018 ;4(1):1-1.

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2. A.S. MR, Minahil N, Terry J. Assessing the complexity of adult ASD cases across three areas in Southern England : a service evaluation. Advances in Autism ;2018 ;4(1):2-9.

Purpose Over the last few years increasing numbers of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) services have been established across the country. The different services use varying models and the level of complexity seen in each is unclear. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach In order to facilitate the development of the next phase of service provision the three geographical areas covered by SABP ASD services were compared. Modified Global Assessment of Functioning (mGAF) scores were calculated for 75 patients from each area before being compared across various domains to identify the complexities in each area covered. Findings Overall high levels of complexity were seen, with 85 per cent presenting with a serious or major functional difficulty based on, mGAF scores. Originality/value This has planning implications both for commissioners and future service development as previously not identified at a time when services are continuing to expand.

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3. Yona L, Ami T, A. WJ, Anna P, Elspeth B. A review of emergency department visits made by youth and adults with autism spectrum disorder from the parent perspective. Advances in Autism ;2018 ;4(1):10-18.

Purpose Past research has shown individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) visit hospital emergency departments (ED) at high rates. In order to assist individuals with ASD, their families and health care providers to improve ED care, it is important to understand these encounters in greater detail. The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive summary of the ED experiences of adolescents and adults with ASD, from the perspective of their families. Design/methodology/approach A subset of data from a larger prospective cohort study was used. Specifically, 46 parents of adolescents and adults with ASD provided details concerning 49 ED visits over a 12-month period. Findings Results suggest a range of presentations requiring ED use, and also diverse profiles of those with ASD who visited the ED, in terms of age, gender, and ASD severity. While overall degree of satisfaction with care received in the ED was high, parents provided recommendations to improve the ED experiences for their family members with ASD. Originality/value This is the first study to provide detailed accounts of ED visits from the perspective of parents of adolescents and adults with ASD. Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with ASD across the lifespan and it is important to include their perspective to improve hospital-based care for those with ASD.

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4. Henny K. Evidence of increased PTSD symptoms in autistics exposed to applied behavior analysis. Advances in Autism ;2018 ;4(1):19-29.

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in adults and children who were exposed to applied behavior analysis (ABA) autism early childhood intervention. Using an online questionnaire to survey autistic adults and caregivers of autistic children, the author collected data from 460 respondents on demographics, intervention types, and current pathological behaviors with symptom severity scales. This study noted PTSS in nearly half of ABA-exposed participants, while non-exposed controls had a 72 percent chance of being asymptomatic. ABA satisfaction ratings for caregivers averaged neutral or mild satisfaction. In contrast, adult satisfaction with ABA was lower on average and also tended to take on either extremely low or extremely high ratings. Exposure to ABA predicted a higher rate and more severe PTSS in participants, but the duration of exposure did not affect satisfaction with the intervention in caregivers. Design/methodology/approach Participants were recruited for an online survey through social media networks, adult gatherings, social skills groups, and autism support groups nationwide. Adult inclusion criteria consisted of autism – diagnosed or self-diagnosed – and an age of 18 or older. A total of 460 respondents, consisting of autistic adults and caregivers of autistic children, completed an online survey. The caregiver entries (n=217) concerned 79 percent male children, 21 percent female children (male to female 3.80:1), and one MtF transgender child, ages 1-38, with an average age at diagnosis of 4.69 years. The adult entries (n=243) concerned 30 percent males, 55 percent females (male to female 0.55:1), and 14 percent other gender, ages 18-73, with an average age at diagnosis of 25.38 years. Findings Nearly half (46 percent) of the ABA-exposed respondents met the diagnostic threshold for PTSD, and extreme levels of severity were recorded in 47 percent of the affected subgroup. Respondents of all ages who were exposed to ABA were 86 percent more likely to meet the PTSD criteria than respondents who were not exposed to ABA. Adults and children both had increased chances (41 and 130 percent, respectively) of meeting the PTSD criteria if they were exposed to ABA. Both adults and children without ABA exposure had a 72 percent chance of reporting no PTSS (see Figure 1). At the time of the study, 41 percent of the caregivers reported using ABA-based interventions. Originality/value The majority of adult respondents were female, raising questions about the population of online autistic survey respondents. Further, the high numbers of reported gender other than male or female in the adult respondents, as well as at least on MtF child from the caregiver respondents indicates that future studies should consider these intersections. These accompanied significant discrepancies in reporting bias between caregivers and ABA-exposed individuals, which highlight the need for the inclusion of the adult autistic voice in future intervention design. Based on the findings, the author predicts that nearly half of ABA-exposed autistic children will be expected to meet the PTSD criteria four weeks after commencing the intervention ; if ABA intervention persists, there will tend to be an increase in parent satisfaction despite no decrease in PTSS severity.

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5. Eddie C, Samyukta M. Autism spectrum disorder and hate crime. Advances in Autism ;2018 ;4(1):30-36.

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to offer an overview of hate crime relating to people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Design/methodology/approach This is a discussion outlining some of the key evidence relating to ASD and hate crime. Findings For too long the issue of hate crime and autism has been neglected in spite of significant numbers of people with ASDs experiencing hate crime and/or harassment on a regular basis. Originality/value Although people with ASD are thought to be subject to high rates of hate crimes the literature is sparse when compared to other strands of hate crime such as race or religion.

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