Pubmed du 09/04/18

lundi 9 avril 2018

1. Andrews DS, Marquand A, Ecker C, McAlonan G. Using Pattern Classification to Identify Brain Imaging Markers in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 2018.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviours. The etiological and phenotypic complexity of ASD has so far hindered the development of clinically useful biomarkers for the condition. Neuroimaging studies have been valuable in establishing a biological basis for ASD. Increasingly, neuroimaging has been combined with ’machine learning’-based pattern classification methods to make individual diagnostic predictions. Moving forward, the hope is that these techniques may not only facilitate the diagnostic process but may also aid in fractionating the ASD phenotype into more biologically homogeneous sub-groups, with defined pathophysiology, predictable outcomes and/or responses to targeted treatments and/or interventions. This review chapter will first introduce ’machine learning’ and pattern recognition methods in general, with a focus on their application to diagnostic classification. It will highlight why such approaches to biomarker discovery may have advantages over more conventional analytical methods. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of atypical brain structure, function and connectivity in ASD will be briefly reviewed before we describe how pattern recognition has been applied to generate predictive models for ASD. Last, we will discuss some limitations and pitfalls of pattern recognition analyses in ASD and consider how the field can advance beyond the prediction of binary outcomes.

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2. Celikkol C, Bilgic A. Excessive Masturbation Successfully Treated with Fluoxetine in an Adolescent with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Coexisting Depression. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2018.

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3. Deliens G, Papastamou F, Ruytenbeek N, Geelhand P, Kissine M. Selective Pragmatic Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder : Indirect Requests Versus Irony. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often described as being characterised by a uniform pragmatic impairment. However, recent evidence suggests that some areas of pragmatic functioning are preserved. This study seeks to determine to which extent context-based derivation of non-linguistically encoded meaning is functional in ASD. We compare the performance of 24 adults with ASD, and matched neuro-typical adults in two act-out pragmatic tasks. The first task examines generation of indirect request interpretations, and the second the comprehension of irony. Intact contextual comprehension of indirect requests contrasts with marked difficulties in understanding irony. These results suggest that preserved pragmatics in ASD is limited to egocentric processing of context, which does not rely on assumptions about the speaker’s mental states.

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4. Hirose K, Miwa S, Sakaguchi H, Takimoto S, Yoshida Y, Onga Y, Tara Y, Yamanaka K. Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema After ASD Closure Through Right-Sided Mini-Thoracotomy. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2018.

We described a case suffering from re-expanded pulmonary edema (RPE) after atrial septal defect (ASD) closure through right-sided mini-thoracotomy. After re-expansion of the right lung after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a large amount of serous slight-hemorrhagic bronchial secretions spilled out from the right bronchus. Positive pressure ventilation and differential ventilation were used. We found no bleeding and decreased secretions 24 hours after the onset of RPE. She was extubated 42 hours after the operation. To the best of our knowledge, the current case is the first to report the development of RPE during routine minimally invasive surgery for ASD.

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5. Mintz ME. A parent-centered approach to autism diagnosis in early childhood. World journal of pediatrics : WJP. 2018.

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6. Shea LL, Xie M, Turcotte P, Marcus S, Field R, Newschaffer C, Mandell D. Brief Report : Service Use and Associated Expenditures Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Transitioning to Adulthood. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

This study compared Medicaid service utilization and expenditures among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) as they aged into adulthood. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data was used to identify a national cohort. Winsorization was utilized to control for expenditure outliers. A greater proportion of adolescents with ASD utilized most services. Decreases in the use of key services, including psychiatric outpatient services, were observed for both groups. Changes in medical services, such as increases in inpatient and long term care services, among the ASD cohort suggest medical needs of adolescents with ASD change as they age. Information remains lacking on changing ASD symptom presentation during the transition to adolescence.

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