Pubmed du 12/04/18

jeudi 12 avril 2018

1. Caron J, Light J, Holyfield C, McNaughton D. Effects of dynamic text in an AAC app on sight word reading for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Augmentative and alternative communication (Baltimore, Md : 1985). 2018 : 1-12.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Transition to Literacy (T2L) software features (i.e., dynamic text and speech output upon selection of a graphic symbol) within a grid display in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) app, on the sight word reading skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs. The study implemented a single-subject multiple probe research design across one set of three participants. The same design was utilized with an additional set of two participants. As part of the intervention, the participants were exposed to an AAC app with the T2L features during a highly structured matching task. With only limited exposure to the features, the five participants all demonstrated increased accuracy of identification of 12 targeted sight words. This study provides preliminary evidence that redesigning AAC apps to include the provision of dynamic text combined with speech output, can positively impact the sight-word reading of participants during a structured task. This adaptation in AAC system design could be used to complement literacy instruction and to potentially infuse components of literacy learning into daily communication.

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2. Choi B, Leech KA, Tager-Flusberg H, Nelson CA. Development of fine motor skills is associated with expressive language outcomes in infants at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder. J Neurodev Disord. 2018 ; 10(1) : 14.

BACKGROUND : A growing body of research suggests that fine motor abilities are associated with skills in a variety of domains in both typical and atypical development. In this study, we investigated developmental trajectories of fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months in relation to expressive language outcomes at 36 months in infants at high and low familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS : Participants included 71 high-risk infants without ASD diagnoses, 30 high-risk infants later diagnosed with ASD, and 69 low-risk infants without ASD diagnoses. As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, fine motor skills were assessed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age and expressive language outcomes at 36 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Diagnosis of ASD was determined at the infant’s last visit to the lab (18, 24, or 36 months) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. RESULTS : Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that high-risk infants who later developed ASD showed significantly slower growth in fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months, compared to their typically developing peers. In contrast to group differences in growth from age 6 months, cross-sectional group differences emerged only in the second year of life. Also, fine motor skills at 6 months predicted expressive language outcomes at 3 years of age. CONCLUSIONS : These results highlight the importance of utilizing longitudinal approaches in measuring early fine motor skills to reveal subtle group differences in infancy between ASD high-risk and low-risk infant populations and to predict their subsequent language outcomes.

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3. Loureiro D, Machado A, Silva T, Veigas T, Ramalheira C, Cerejeira J. Higher Autistic Traits Among Criminals, But No Link to Psychopathy : Findings from a High-Security Prison in Portugal. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

The relationship between autism, criminality and psychopathy has gained increased attention in recent years, although research has focused on autism spectrum disorders, and not autistic traits. We measured autistic traits (with the Autism Spectrum Quotient) in a sample of 101 inmates from a high-security prison and compared them to a control group, using a logistic regression model that included age, education, psychopathology, psychopathy and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder as covariates. Prisoners had more autistic traits (OR 1.13, p = 0.002) due to higher scores in the communication (OR 1.23) and imagination (OR 1.30) domains. No correlations were found between autistic and psychopathic traits. Our study points to the presence of autistic traits as being independent risk factors for imprisonment, although not associated with psychopathy.

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4. Tripi G, Roux S, Carotenuto M, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Roccella M. Minor Neurological Dysfunctions (MNDs) in Autistic Children without Intellectual Disability. J Clin Med. 2018 ; 7(4).

BACKGROUND : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require neurological evaluation to detect sensory-motor impairment. This will improve understanding of brain function in children with ASD, in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHODS : We compared 32 ASD children without intellectual disability (IQ >/= 70) with 32 healthy controls. A standardized and age-specific neurological examination according to Touwen was used to detect the presence of MNDs. Particular attention was paid to severity and type of MNDs. RESULTS : Children with ASD had significantly higher rates of MNDs compared to controls (96.9% versus 15.6%) : 81.3% had simple MNDs (p < 0.0001) and 15.6% had complex MNDs (p = 0.053). The prevalence of MNDs in the ASD group was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than controls. With respect to specific types of MNDs, children with ASD showed a wide range of fine manipulative disability, sensory deficits and choreiform dyskinesia. We also found an excess of associated movements and anomalies in coordination and balance. CONCLUSIONS : Results replicate previous findings which found delays in sensory-motor behavior in ASD pointing towards a role for prenatal, natal and neonatal risk factors in the neurodevelopmental theory of autism.

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5. Yuen T, Carter MT, Szatmari P, Ungar WJ. Cost-effectiveness of Genome and Exome Sequencing in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Applied health economics and health policy. 2018.

BACKGROUND : Genome (GS) and exome sequencing (ES) could potentially identify pathogenic variants with greater sensitivity than chromosomal microarray (CMA) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but are costlier and result interpretation can be uncertain. Study objective was to compare the costs and outcomes of four genetic testing strategies in children with ASD. METHODS : A microsimulation model estimated the outcomes and costs (in societal and public payer perspectives in Ontario, Canada) of four genetic testing strategies : CMA for all, CMA for all followed by ES for those with negative CMA and syndromic features (CMA+ES), ES or GS for all. RESULTS : Compared to CMA, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per additional child identified with rare pathogenic variants within 18 months of ASD diagnosis was $CAN5997.8 for CMA+ES, $CAN13,504.2 for ES and $CAN10,784.5 for GS in the societal perspective. ICERs were sensitive to changes in ES or GS diagnostic yields, wait times for test results or pre-test genetic counselling, but were robust to changes in the ES or GS costs. CONCLUSION : Strategic integration of ES into ASD care could be a cost-effective strategy. Long wait times for genetic services and uncertain utility, both clinical and personal, of sequencing results could limit broader clinical implementation.

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