Pubmed du 13/04/18

vendredi 13 avril 2018

1. Boutet I, Collin CA, MacLeod LS, Messier C, Holahan MR, Berry-Kravis E, Gandhi RM, Kogan CS. Utility of the Hebb-Williams Maze Paradigm for Translational Research in Fragile X Syndrome : A Direct Comparison of Mice and Humans. Front Mol Neurosci. 2018 ; 11 : 99.

To generate meaningful information, translational research must employ paradigms that allow extrapolation from animal models to humans. However, few studies have evaluated translational paradigms on the basis of defined validation criteria. We outline three criteria for validating translational paradigms. We then evaluate the Hebb-Williams maze paradigm (Hebb and Williams, 1946 ; Rabinovitch and Rosvold, 1951) on the basis of these criteria using Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as model disease. We focused on this paradigm because it allows direct comparison of humans and animals on tasks that are behaviorally equivalent (criterion #1) and because it measures spatial information processing, a cognitive domain for which FXS individuals and mice show impairments as compared to controls (criterion #2). We directly compared the performance of affected humans and mice across different experimental conditions and measures of behavior to identify which conditions produce comparable patterns of results in both species. Species differences were negligible for Mazes 2, 4, and 5 irrespective of the presence of visual cues, suggesting that these mazes could be used to measure spatial learning in both species. With regards to performance on the first trial, which reflects visuo-spatial problem solving, Mazes 5 and 9 without visual cues produced the most consistent results. We conclude that the Hebb-Williams mazes paradigm has the potential to be utilized in translational research to measure comparable cognitive functions in FXS humans and animals (criterion #3).

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2. Caron J, Light J, Holyfield C, McNaughton D. Effects of dynamic text in an AAC app on sight word reading for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Augmentative and alternative communication (Baltimore, Md : 1985). 2018 : 1-12.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Transition to Literacy (T2L) software features (i.e., dynamic text and speech output upon selection of a graphic symbol) within a grid display in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) app, on the sight word reading skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs. The study implemented a single-subject multiple probe research design across one set of three participants. The same design was utilized with an additional set of two participants. As part of the intervention, the participants were exposed to an AAC app with the T2L features during a highly structured matching task. With only limited exposure to the features, the five participants all demonstrated increased accuracy of identification of 12 targeted sight words. This study provides preliminary evidence that redesigning AAC apps to include the provision of dynamic text combined with speech output, can positively impact the sight-word reading of participants during a structured task. This adaptation in AAC system design could be used to complement literacy instruction and to potentially infuse components of literacy learning into daily communication.

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3. Chang KC, Wang LY, Wang JH, Shaw CK, Hwang MJ, Wu CH, Huang HK. Dental utilization and expenditures by children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders : A population-based cohort study. Ci ji yi xue za zhi = Tzu-chi medical journal. 2018 ; 30(1) : 15-9.

Objectives : It is understood that children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty in receiving dental treatment. This study explores the differences in dental utilization and expenditure between two groups : children and adolescents with and without ASD. Different conditions that affect these results will be examined, including area of residence, category of treatment, and preferences concerning type of dental institution in Taiwan. Materials and Methods : The health service research database of the National Health Research Institutes, which features population-based, randomly selected samples collected from 2001 to 2010, was utilized in this study. In particular, we recruited samples from 2005 in accordance with the codes of the International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) revision, Clinical Modification from 299.0 to 299.9. The population-based cohort study measured mean expenditures and mean numbers of medical visits with regard to different dental institution classifications, areas of residence, and categories of dental treatment for children (under 18 years old) with and without ASD. Results : The mean number of annual visits was 6.58 and 5.70 for children and adolescents with and without ASD, respectively, with mean annual visit expenditures of NT$2401.20 and NT$1817.99, respectively. A higher percentage of children (91.32%) and adolescents (72.66%) with ASD had experienced dental treatment than those without ASD. Children (93.23%) and adolescents (90.83%) without ASD visited dental clinics more often than those with ASD. The percentage of dental visits to academic medical centers in Eastern Taiwan was significantly lower for the ASD group than visits to other types of dental institutions. The use of restorative treatment was significantly higher among all samples, with periodontology having the lowest percentage. Conclusions : Children and adolescents with ASD had greater dental utilization, expenditures, and preferences for high-level dental institutions. The discrepancies in dental utilization indicate differences in the distribution of medical resources in different dental institution levels and residence areas in Taiwan.

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4. Ciaramelli E, Spoglianti S, Bertossi E, Generali N, Telarucci F, Tancredi R, Muratori F, Igliozzi R. Construction of Past and Future Events in Children and Adolescents with ASD : Role of Self-relatedness and Relevance to Decision-Making. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

We studied episodic memory and future thinking for self-relevant and other-relevant events at different levels of retrieval support, theory of mind, and delay discounting in ASD children and adolescents (ASDs). Compared to typically developing controls, ASDs produced fewer internal (episodic) but a similar number of external (semantic) details while remembering past events, imagining future events, and imagining future events happening to others, indicating a general impairment of event construction. This deficit was driven by group differences under high retrieval support, and therefore unlikely to depend on self-initiated retrieval/construction deficits. ASDs’ event construction impairment related to the severity of ASD symptoms, and to theory of mind deficits. ASDs, however, showed normal delay discounting, highlighting preserved forms of future-based decision-making in ASD.

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5. Ledbetter-Cho K, O’Reilly M, Lang R, Watkins L, Lim N. Meta-analysis of Tablet-Mediated Interventions for Teaching Academic Skills to Individuals with Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

Portable touch-screen devices have been the focus of a notable amount of intervention research involving individuals with autism. Additionally, popular media has widely circulated claims that such devices and academic software applications offer tremendous educational benefits. A systematic search identified 19 studies that targeted academic skills for individuals with autism. Most studies used the device’s built-in video recording or camera function to create customized teaching materials, rather than commercially-available applications. Analysis of potential moderating variables indicated that participants’ age and functioning level did not influence outcomes. However, participant operation of the device, as opposed to operation by an instructor, produced significantly larger effect size estimates. Results are discussed in terms of recommendations for practitioners and future research.

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6. Lomas Mevers J, Muething C, Call NA, Scheithauer M, Hewett S. A consecutive case series analysis of a behavioral intervention for enuresis in children with developmental disabilities. Dev Neurorehabil. 2018 : 1-9.

Children with developmental disabilities (DD) are more likely than typically developing peers to have issues with enuresis. Past research has shown the success of behavioral treatments consisting of scheduled sits and reinforcement for continent voids. However, this research has included small sample sizes, while studies with larger numbers have lacked key information (i.e., baseline rates and follow-up data to evaluate maintenance and generalization). The current study conducted a consecutive case series analysis of 44 individuals with developmental disabilities who completed a 2-week program for enuresis. Results showed significant improvement in continent voids and follow-up data suggested positive results maintained when treatment was implemented by caregivers in a home environment.

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7. Mul CL, Stagg SD, Herbelin B, Aspell JE. The Feeling of Me Feeling for You : Interoception, Alexithymia and Empathy in Autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

Following recent evidence for a link between interoception, emotion and empathy, we investigated relationships between these factors in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 26 adults with ASD and 26 healthy participants completed tasks measuring interoception, alexithymia and empathy. ASD participants with alexithymia demonstrated lower cognitive and affective empathy than ASD participants without alexithymia. ASD participants showed reduced interoceptive sensitivity (IS), and also reduced interoceptive awareness (IA). IA was correlated with empathy and alexithymia, but IS was related to neither. Alexithymia fulfilled a mediating role between IA and empathy. Our findings are suggestive of an alexithymic subgroup in ASD, with distinct interoceptive processing abilities, and have implications for diagnosis and interventions.

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8. Nobili A, Glazebrook C, Bouman WP, Glidden D, Baron-Cohen S, Allison C, Smith P, Arcelus J. Autistic Traits in Treatment-Seeking Transgender Adults. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

The present study aimed to compare prevalence of autistic traits measured by the self-reported autism spectrum quotient-short (AQ-short) in a transgender clinical population (n = 656) matched by age and sex assigned at birth to a cisgender community sample. Results showed that transgender and cisgender people reported similar levels of possible autistic caseness. Transgender people assigned female were more likely to have clinically significant autistic traits compared to any other group. No difference was found between those assigned male. High AQ scores may not be indicative of the presence of an autism spectrum condition as the difference between groups mainly related to social behaviours ; such scores may be a reflection of transgender people’s high social anxiety levels due to negative past experiences.

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9. Padden C, Concialdi-McGlynn C, Lydon S. Psychophysiological measures of stress in caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder : a systematic review. Dev Neurorehabil. 2018 : 1-15.

PURPOSE : Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often self-report heightened levels of stress and physical health problems. This paper reviewed studies assessing physiological measures of stress among parents of children with ASD. METHODS : Systematic database searches identified 15 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed to determine : (a) control group characteristics ; (b) caregiver and care recipient characteristics ; (c) setting ; (d) physiological measures employed ; (e) physiological outcomes ; and (f) stressor type. A measure of methodological quality was also applied. RESULTS : Salivary cortisol was the most common physiological measure employed. A pattern of blunted physiological activity emerged within the reviewed studies, though some studies reported normal or even higher physiological activity among this population. CONCLUSIONS : Findings suggested dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis and autonomic nervous system for some, but not all, parents of children with ASD. Further research is warranted.

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10. Reilly M, Fogler J, Bridgemohan C, Wiley M, Weitzman C, Augustyn M. Helping a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder Cope with Divorce. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018.

CASE : Aaron is an 11-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with cognitive and language skills in the above-average range, whose parents have recently separated. Aaron’s mother initiated the separation when she learned that Aaron’s father had maintained a relationship with a woman with whom he has a 10-year-old daughter. When Aaron’s mother discovered this relationship, she demanded that Aaron’s father leave their home.Aaron’s father has moved in with his long-term girlfriend and keeps in contact with Aaron by calling once a day. Neither Aaron’s father nor mother has discussed the reason for their separation with Aaron. So far, they have explained their separation by telling Aaron that they are "taking a break."Aaron’s mother has been deeply hurt by Aaron’s father’s infidelity and does not want to reconcile with him. Aaron’s father recognizes this but would like to continue to have a close relationship with his son. He would also like Aaron to get to know his half-sister.Aaron’s mother seeks guidance regarding how to talk to Aaron about the separation and his father’s second family. Given Aaron’s diagnosis of ASD, she is particularly concerned about his ability to cope with this unexpected change in circumstances. What is your advice ?

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11. Rodriguez-Medina J, Rodriguez-Navarro H, Arias V, Arias B, Anguera MT. Non-reciprocal Friendships in a School-Age Boy with Autism : The Ties that Build ?. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

This mixed-methods study examined differences in social interaction patterns between a school-age boy with autism and his friends, non-reciprocal friends, and non-friends during recess time at a mainstream school (third grade of elementary school). Through a combination of observational methodology and social network analysis with an idiographic, follow-up and multidimensional design approach, we used lag sequential and polar coordinate analysis to ascertain the associations between various interactive behaviors as a function of type of friendship relation. After 40 sessions, we found that the non-reciprocal friendship relations of the boy with autism could have significantly greater potential than his reciprocal friendships to increase active engagement and reduce the time he spent alone during recess.

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12. Sapey-Triomphe LA, Sonie S, Henaff MA, Mattout J, Schmitz C. Adults with Autism Tend to Undermine the Hidden Environmental Structure : Evidence from a Visual Associative Learning Task. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

The learning-style theory of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (Qian, Lipkin, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:77, 2011) states that ASD individuals differ from neurotypics in the way they learn and store information about the environment and its structure. ASD would rather adopt a lookup-table strategy (LUT : memorizing each experience), while neurotypics would favor an interpolation style (INT : extracting regularities to generalize). In a series of visual behavioral tasks, we tested this hypothesis in 20 neurotypical and 20 ASD adults. ASD participants had difficulties using the INT style when instructions were hidden but not when instructions were revealed. Rather than an inability to use rules, ASD would be characterized by a disinclination to generalize and infer such rules.

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13. Sheldrick RC, Carter AS. State-Level Trends in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from 2000 to 2012 : A Reanalysis of Findings from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Network. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

Since 2000, the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Network (ADDM) has published detailed prevalence estimates for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among 8 year-olds, which are widely interpreted as the U.S. national prevalence of ASD. Although differences in state-level ASD prevalence has been reported, state-level heterogeneity has not been explored systematically. We analyzed state-level estimates and trends in ASD prevalence from 2000 to 2012 using secondary data from bi-annual ADDM reports. Heterogeneity among state-level ASD prevalence estimates were apparent in 2000 and grew between 2000 and 2012. Findings highlight the need for greater understanding of how children with ASD are identified by the medical and educational systems, which has significant implications for the state-level resources required to effectively manage ASD.

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14. Stavropoulos KK, Bolourian Y, Blacher J. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder : Two Clinical Cases. J Clin Med. 2018 ; 7(4).

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect one in 68 children. Given the increase in both prevalence and awareness of ASD, it is critical to provide accurate and timely diagnosis. However, ASD often co-occurs with other disorders, making diagnosis difficult. The objective of the current case study was to provide two examples of differential diagnosis in ASD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in an autism clinic. In both cases, the goal was to decide whether each child should be given a diagnosis of ASD, PTSD, or both.

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15. Tripi G, Roux S, Carotenuto M, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Roccella M. Minor Neurological Dysfunctions (MNDs) in Autistic Children without Intellectual Disability. J Clin Med. 2018 ; 7(4).

BACKGROUND : Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require neurological evaluation to detect sensory-motor impairment. This will improve understanding of brain function in children with ASD, in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHODS : We compared 32 ASD children without intellectual disability (IQ >/= 70) with 32 healthy controls. A standardized and age-specific neurological examination according to Touwen was used to detect the presence of MNDs. Particular attention was paid to severity and type of MNDs. RESULTS : Children with ASD had significantly higher rates of MNDs compared to controls (96.9% versus 15.6%) : 81.3% had simple MNDs (p < 0.0001) and 15.6% had complex MNDs (p = 0.053). The prevalence of MNDs in the ASD group was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than controls. With respect to specific types of MNDs, children with ASD showed a wide range of fine manipulative disability, sensory deficits and choreiform dyskinesia. We also found an excess of associated movements and anomalies in coordination and balance. CONCLUSIONS : Results replicate previous findings which found delays in sensory-motor behavior in ASD pointing towards a role for prenatal, natal and neonatal risk factors in the neurodevelopmental theory of autism.

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16. Tromans S, Adams C. Brief Report : Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Comprehensive Survey of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to provide an overview of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of therapeutic interventions for autism spectrum disorders. From the final survey (529 RCTs), the mean size was 49 participants (standard deviation 50, range 1-479, median 36, mode 40), with a sharp increase in the number of RCTs from 2008. The most frequently evaluated intervention was antipsychotic treatment (n = 44, 3006 participants). The journal with the most RCTs was the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (N = 104). Most trials were small in size, emphasising the need for research groups to collaborate to generate higher quality data with greater applicability to clinical practice.

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17. Tse ACY, Lee PH, Zhang J, Lai EWH. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial examining the association between physical activity and sleep quality in children with autism spectrum disorder based on the melatonin-mediated mechanism model. BMJ Open. 2018 ; 8(4) : e020944.

INTRODUCTION : Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Disturbed sleep may exacerbate the core symptoms of ASD. Behavioural interventions and supplemental melatonin medication are traditionally used to improve sleep quality, but poor sustainability of behavioural intervention effects and use of other medications that metabolise melatonin may degrade the effectiveness of these interventions. However, several studies have suggested that physical activity may provide an effective intervention for treating sleep disturbance in typically developing children. Thus, we designed a study to examine whether such an intervention is also effective in children with ASD. We present a protocol (4 December 2017) for a jogging intervention with a parallel and two-group randomised controlled trial design using objective actigraphic assessment and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin measurement to determine whether a 12-week physical activity intervention elicits changes in sleep quality or melatonin levels. METHODS AND ANALYSIS : All eligible participants will be randomly allocated to either a jogging intervention group or a control group receiving standard care. Changes in sleep quality will be monitored through actigraphic assessment and parental sleep logs. All participants will also be instructed to collect a 24-hour urine sample. 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a creatinine-adjusted morning urinary melatonin representative of the participant’s melatonin levels, will be measured from the sample. All assessments will be carried out before the intervention (T1), immediately after the 12-week intervention or regular treatment (T2), 6 weeks after the intervention (T3) and 12 weeks after the intervention (T4) to examine the sustainability of the intervention effects. The first enrolment began in February 2018. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION : Ethical approval was obtained through the Human Research Ethics Committee, Education University of Hong Kong. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER : NCT03348982.

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18. Wink LK, Adams R, Horn PS, Tessier CR, Bantel AP, Hong M, Shaffer RC, Pedapati EV, Erickson CA. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Pilot Study of Riluzole for Drug-Refractory Irritability in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

Riluzole is a glutamatergic modulator of particular interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study we evaluated the safety and tolerability of 5-week of adjunctive riluzole treatment (vs. 5-week of placebo, with 2-week washout period) targeting ASD-associated drug-refractory irritability in eight individuals age 12-25 years. All participants tolerated riluzole 200 mg per day, however there were no statistically significant findings for the overall treatment effect, the treatment effect by week within period of the study, or a cross-over effect across the periods of the study on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale or the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale. The results of this trial indicate that 5-week of riluzole treatment was well tolerated, but had no significant effect on the target symptoms. Trial Registration Identifier NCT02081027, Registered 5 August 2013, First participant enrolled 19 September 2013.

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19. Yuen T, Carter MT, Szatmari P, Ungar WJ. Cost-Effectiveness of Universal or High-Risk Screening Compared to Surveillance Monitoring in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends universal screening for autism spectrum disorder at 18 and 24 months. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of universal or high-risk screening to surveillance monitoring. Simulation models estimated the costs and outcomes from birth to age 6 years. The incremental cost per child diagnosed by 36 months was $41,651.6 for high-risk screening and $757,116.9 for universal screening from the societal perspective. Universal screening may not be a cost-effective approach to increase earlier treatment initiation, as most children initiated treatment after age 60 months. Eliminating wait times resulted in more children initiated treatment by 48 months, but at a high initial cost that may be offset by future cost-savings related to better outcomes.

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20. Zarnowska I, Chrapko B, Gwizda G, Nocun A, Mitosek-Szewczyk K, Gasior M. Therapeutic use of carbohydrate-restricted diets in an autistic child ; a case report of clinical and 18FDG PET findings. Metabolic brain disease. 2018.

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that has been used successfully in the treatment of refractory epilepsies for almost 100 years. There has been accumulating evidence to show that the KD may provide a therapeutic benefit in autism spectrum disorders, albeit by a yet-unknown mechanism. We report a case of a 6-year-old patient with high-functioning autism and subclinical epileptic discharges who responded poorly to several behavioural and psychopharmacological treatments. The patient was subsequently placed on the KD due to significant glucose hypometabolism in the brain as revealed by an 18FDG PET. As soon as one month after starting the KD, the patient’s behavior and intellect improved (in regard to hyperactivity, attention span, abnormal reactions to visual and auditory stimuli, usage of objects, adaptability to changes, communication skills, fear, anxiety, and emotional reactions) ; these improvements continued until the end of the observation period at 16 months on the KD. The 18FDG PET, measured at 12 months on the KD, revealed that 18F-FDG uptake decreased markedly and diffusely in the whole cerebral cortex with a relatively low reduction in basal ganglia in comparison to the pre-KD assessment. It warrants further investigation if the 18FDG PET imaging could serve as a biomarker in identifying individuals with autism who might benefit from the KD due to underlying abnormalities related to glucose hypometabolism.

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