Pubmed du 22/09/09

mercredi 23 septembre 2009

1. Carbone PS, Behl DD, Azor V, Murphy NA. The Medical Home for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders : Parent and Pediatrician Perspectives. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Sep 19)

This qualitative study examines differences between perceptions of parents and pediatricians regarding the needs of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their families within the medical home. Two separate focus groups of parents of children with ASDs and pediatricians were conducted. Parents and pediatricians identify unmet needs within medical homes of children with ASDs. Parents perceived that physicians did not act early upon their concerns about development, and that care is less comprehensive, coordinated and family-centered than desired. Pediatricians desire to improve services but cite lack of time, training and resources as barriers. Medical homes for children with ASDs would benefit from better pediatrician ASD education and medical systems that support extended visits, care coordination and interdisciplinary collaboration.

2. Evatt ML, Delong MR, Grant WB, Cannell JJ, Tangpricha V. Autism spectrum disorders following in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs. Neurology ;2009 (Sep 22) ;73(12):997.

3. Kikuchi Y, Senju A, Tojo Y, Osanai H, Hasegawa T. Faces do not capture special attention in children with autism spectrum disorder : a change blindness study. Child Dev ;2009 (Sep-Oct) ;80(5):1421-1433.

Two experiments investigated attention of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to faces and objects. In both experiments, children (7- to 15-year-olds) detected the difference between 2 visual scenes. Results in Experiment 1 revealed that typically developing children (n = 16) detected the change in faces faster than in objects, whereas children with ASD (n = 16) were equally fast in detecting changes in faces and objects. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 16 in children with ASD and 22 in typically developing children), which does not require face recognition skill. Results suggest that children with ASD lack an attentional bias toward others’ faces, which could contribute to their atypical social orienting.

4. McCleery JP, Akshoomoff N, Dobkins KR, Carver LJ. Atypical Face Versus Object Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in 10-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism. Biol Psychiatry ;2009 (Sep 16)

BACKGROUND : Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old high-risk infants who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder. METHODS : We employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400, and Nc) were compared between 20 high-risk infants and 20 low-risk control subjects (infants with no family history of ASD). RESULTS : Responses to faces versus objects differed between high- and low-risk infants for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in low-risk, but not high-risk, infants (P400) and, conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in high-risk, but not low-risk, infants (N290). Object responses were also faster in high-risk than low-risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left versus right hemisphere responses also differed between high- and low-risk infants for the amplitudes of the P100, N290, and P400 ; collapsed across faces/objects, low-risk, but not high-risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries. CONCLUSIONS : Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face versus object processing and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder.

5. Parker-Athill E, Luo D, Bailey A, Giunta B, Tian J, Shytle RD, Murphy T, Legradi G, Tan J. Flavonoids, a prenatal prophylaxis via targeting JAK2/STAT3 signaling to oppose IL-6/MIA associated autism. J Neuroimmunol ;2009 (Sep 17)

Maternal immune activation (MIA) can affect fetal brain development and thus behavior of young and adult offspring. Reports have shown that increased Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the maternal serum plays a key role in altering fetal brain development, and may impair social behaviors in the offspring. Interestingly, these effects could be attenuated by blocking IL-6. The current study investigated the effects of luteolin, a citrus bioflavonoid, and its structural analog, diosmin, on IL-6 induced JAK2/STAT3 (Janus tyrosine kinase-2/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) phosphorylation and signaling as well as behavioral phenotypes of MIA offspring. Luteolin and diosmin inhibited neuronal JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo following IL-6 challenge as well as significantly diminishing behavioral deficits in social interaction. Importantly, our results showed that diosmin (10mg/kgday) was able to block the STAT3 signal pathway ; significantly opposing MIA-induced abnormal behavior and neuropathological abnormalities in MIA/adult offspring. Diosmin’s molecular inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway may underlie the attenuation of abnormal social interaction in IL-6/MIA adult offspring.

6. Rump KM, Giovannelli JL, Minshew NJ, Strauss MS. The development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism. Child Dev ;2009 (Sep-Oct) ;80(5):1434-1447.

Emotion recognition was investigated in typically developing individuals and individuals with autism. Experiment 1 tested children (5-7 years, n = 37) with brief video displays of facial expressions that varied in subtlety. Children with autism performed worse than the control children. In Experiment 2, 3 age groups (8-12 years, n = 49 ; 13-17 years, n = 49 ; and adults n = 45) were tested on the same stimuli. Whereas the performance of control individuals was best in the adult group, the performance of individuals with autism was similar in all age groups. Results are discussed with respect to underlying cognitive processes that may be affecting the development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism.

7. Sheppard E, Ropar D, Mitchell P. Drawing the line : how people with autism copy line drawings of three-dimensional objects. Perception ;2009 ;38(7):1104-1106.

It is purported that the local perceptual style characteristic of those with autism results in them reproducing line drawings in a more localised manner than comparison individuals. Here we report an exception to this : the drawing strategies of those with autism were more global. When reproducing line drawings depicting three-dimensional objects, a sample of fifty-six participants with autism showed a greater tendency to begin by copying the two-dimensional outline of the figure than fifty-seven matched comparison participants (39.3% versus 8.8% of group ; chi(1)2 = 14.46, p < 0.0005). We argue that this is consistent with the perception of those with autism being less conceptually driven, but not necessarily less global.


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