Pubmed du 25/09/09

lundi 28 septembre 2009

1. Bakouie F, Zendehrouh S, Gharibzadeh S. Does a kind of over-fitting occur in the brain of autistic patients ? J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ;2009 (Summer) ;21(3):343.

2. Crane L, Goddard L, Pring L. Brief Report : Self-defining and Everyday Autobiographical Memories in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord ;2009 (Sep 24)

Autobiographical memory impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been attributed to a failure in using the self as an effective memory organisational system. To explore this hypothesis, we compared self-defining and everyday memories in adults with and without ASD. Results demonstrated that both groups were able to distinguish between self-defining and everyday memories, although the ASD group generated fewer specific memories overall. Despite qualitative similarities between the narratives of the two groups, the adults with ASD extracted less meaning from their narratives. Difficulties in eliciting meaning from memories suggests a failure in using past experiences to update the self. We therefore propose that the self-memory relationship might be static, rather than dynamic, in ASD.

3. Melillo R, Leisman G. Autistic spectrum disorders as functional disconnection syndrome. Rev Neurosci ;2009 ;20(2):111-131.

We outline the basis of how functional disconnection with reduced activity and coherence in the right hemisphere would explain all of the symptoms of autistic spectrum disorder as well as the observed increases in sympathetic activation. If the problem of autistic spectrum disorder is primarily one of desynchronization and ineffective interhemispheric communication, then the best way to address the symptoms is to improve coordination between areas of the brain. To do that the best approach would include multimodal therapeusis that would include a combination of somatosensory, cognitive, behavioral, and biochemical interventions all directed at improving overall health, reducing inflammation and increasing right hemisphere activity to the level that it becomes temporally coherent with the left hemisphere. We hypothesize that the unilateral increased hemispheric stimulation has the effect of increasing the temporal oscillations within the thalamocortical pathways bringing it closer to the oscillation rate of the adequately functioning hemisphere. We propose that increasing the baseline oscillation speed of one entire hemisphere will enhance the coordination and coherence between the two hemispheres allowing for enhanced motor and cognitive binding.

4. Strunk JA. School Nurses’ Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Sch Nurs ;2009 (Sep 23)

The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses’ working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication usage and side effects, communication skills, safety issues, collaboration skills, and community resources. Survey results indicated that the majority of school nurses are knowledgeable about ASD, including symptomology and related medications. Results also suggested that school nurses are not as knowledgeable concerning communication skills, behavioral therapies, and safety issues. This study confirms a need for school nurses to enhance their knowledge of ASD, to familiarize themselves with the policy and health care networks that they collaborate with, and to communicate effectively with students, parents, educators, and community members in dealing with ASD.

5. Wermter AK, Kamp-Becker I, Hesse P, Schulte-Korne G, Strauch K, Remschmidt H. Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ;2009 (Sep 23)

An increasing number of animal studies advert to a substantial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in the regulation of social attachment and affiliation. Furthermore, animal studies showed anxiety and stress-reduced effects of oxytocin. First human studies confirm these findings in animal studies and implicate a crucial role of oxytocin in human social attachment behavior and in social interactions. Thus, the oxytocin system might be involved in the impairment of social interaction and attachment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The human oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) represents a plausible candidate gene for the etiology of ASD. To analyze whether genetic variants in the OXTR gene are associated with ASD we performed family-based single-marker and haplotype association analyses with 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXTR and its 5’ region in 100 families with autistic disorders on high-functioning level (Asperger syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and atypical autism (AA)). Single-marker and haplotype association analyses revealed nominally significant associations of one single SNP and one haplotype with autism, respectively. Furthermore, employing a "reverse phenotyping" approach, patients carrying the haplotype associated with autism showed nominally significant impairments in comparison to noncarriers of the haplotype in items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised algorithm describing aspects of social interaction and communication. In conclusion, our results implicate that genetic variation in the OXTR gene might be relevant in the etiology of autism on high-functioning level. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


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