Pubmed du 30/09/09

jeudi 1er octobre 2009

1. Almeida RA, Dickinson JE, Maybery MT, Badcock JC, Badcock DR. A new step towards understanding Embedded Figures Test performance in the autism spectrum : The radial frequency search task. Neuropsychologia ;2009 (Sep 25)

2. Corbett BA, Carmean V, Ravizza S, Wendelken C, Henry ML, Carter C, Rivera SM. A functional and structural study of emotion and face processing in children with autism. Psychiatry Res ;2009 (Sep 30) ;173(3):196-205.

Children with autism exhibit impairment in the processing of socioemotional information. The amygdala, a core structure centrally involved in socioemotional functioning, has been implicated in the neuropathology of autism. We collected structural and functional magnetic resonance images (MRI) in children 8 to 12 years of age with high-functioning autism (n=12) and typical development (n=15). The functional MRI experiment involved matching facial expressions and people. Volumetric analysis of the amygdala was also performed. The results showed that children with autism exhibited intact emotion matching, while showing diminished activation of the fusiform gyrus (FG) and the amygdala. Conversely, the autism group showed deficits in person matching amidst some FG and variable amygdala activation. No significant between-group differences in the volume of the left or right amygdala were found. There were associations between age, social anxiety and amygdala volume in the children with autism such that smaller volumes were generally associated with more anxiety and younger age. In summary, the data are consistent with abnormalities in circuits involved in emotion and face processing reported in studies of older subjects with autism showing reductions in amygdala activation related to emotion processing and reduced fusiform activation involved in face processing.

3. Elder JH, D’Alessandro T. Supporting families of children with autism spectrum disorders : questions parents ask and what nurses need to know. Pediatr Nurs ;2009 (Jul-Aug) ;35(4):240-245, 253.

Autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong condition that currently has an unclear etiology and no known cure. Families of children on the autism spectrum typically have many questions and much to learn as they manage the disorder and create meaningful lives for their children and themselves. Helping families understand both features of autism and the diagnostic process is key to supporting family acceptance of the diagnosis. Nurses can also assist families in navigating the common process of grief and adjustment following diagnosis. As the diagnosis becomes real, many questions about medications and other treatments can be addressed by knowledgeable nurses. Additionally, nurses can support families in the critical areas of managing family life, addressing sibling needs, and planning for the future. Parent-to-parent advice from the mother of a child with autism supplements this article.

4. Sizoo B, van den Brink W, Koeter M, Gorissen van Eenige M, van Wijngaarden-Cremers P, van der Gaag RJ. Treatment seeking adults with autism or ADHD and co-morbid Substance Use Disorder : Prevalence, risk factors and functional disability. Drug Alcohol Depend ;2009 (Sep 26)

BACKGROUND : Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in adults, especially not about ASD with co-morbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). We wanted to examine how adults with ASD compare to adults with ADHD on prevalence and risk factors for co-morbid SUD, and on disability levels associated with SUD. METHODS : We stratified 123 treatment seeking adults with ASD (n=70) or ADHD (n=53), into current, former and no history of SUD (SUD+, SUD(wedge), and SUD-), and conducted interviews to explore associated risk factors and current levels of disability. RESULTS : Prevalence of co-morbid SUD was higher in ADHD than in ASD in our sample (58% versus 30%, p=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between ASD and ADHD in risk factors or disability scores. Patients with lifetime SUD started regular smoking earlier in life (OR=5.69, C(95%) 2.3-13.8), reported more adverse family events (OR=2.68 ; CI(95%) 1.2-6.1), and had more parental SUD (OR=5.36 ; CI(95%) 1.0-14.5). Disability scores were significantly lower in SUD- and SUD(wedge) groups compared to the SUD+ group. DISCUSSION : These findings suggest that ASD and ADHD share similar risk factors for SUD. High disability in ASD and ADHD with SUD may normalize after prolonged abstinence. Early onset of SUD was not associated with more severe disability scores than later onset. Results suggest that a subgroup of patients with former SUD may have a higher level of functioning before the onset of SUD in comparison to those without lifetime SUD.


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