Pubmed du 05/05/18

samedi 5 mai 2018

1. Vaccinations and the link to ’canine autism’. The Veterinary record. 2018 ; 182(18) : 501.

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2. Belek B. Articulating Sensory Sensitivity : From Bodies with Autism to Autistic Bodies. Medical anthropology. 2018 : 1-14.

Drawing on ethnographic evidence from several communities of autistic adults in the UK, I explore the crucial role of the body and the senses in the enactment of autistic subjectivities. Following their initiation into autism-related social groups, members begin using such concepts as triggers, overload, shutdown, and meltdown to refer to their bodily experiences of distress. They then face the task of investing these ambiguous concepts with meaning, through nurturing an increased awareness to their body’s relationship with its material surrounding. This cultivation of sensitivity ultimately culminates in the transformation of their bodies into what might be termed autistic bodies.

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3. Doherty BR, Charman T, Johnson MH, Scerif G, Gliga T. Visual search and autism symptoms : What young children search for and co-occurring ADHD matter. Dev Sci. 2018 : e12661.

Superior visual search is one of the most common findings in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) literature. Here, we ascertain how generalizable these findings are across task and participant characteristics, in light of recent replication failures. We tested 106 3-year-old children at familial risk for ASD, a sample that presents high ASD and ADHD symptoms, and 25 control participants, in three multi-target search conditions : easy exemplar search (look for cats amongst artefacts), difficult exemplar search (look for dogs amongst chairs/tables perceptually similar to dogs), and categorical search (look for animals amongst artefacts). Performance was related to dimensional measures of ASD and ADHD, in agreement with current research domain criteria (RDoC). We found that ASD symptom severity did not associate with enhanced performance in search, but did associate with poorer categorical search in particular, consistent with literature describing impairments in categorical knowledge in ASD. Furthermore, ASD and ADHD symptoms were both associated with more disorganized search paths across all conditions. Thus, ASD traits do not always convey an advantage in visual search ; on the contrary, ASD traits may be associated with difficulties in search depending upon the nature of the stimuli (e.g., exemplar vs. categorical search) and the presence of co-occurring symptoms.

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4. Holloway JM, Long TM, Biasini F. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatric physical therapy : the official publication of the Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association. 2018.

PURPOSE : The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS : Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. RESULTS : Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. CONCLUSIONS : This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

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5. Kossyvaki L, Curran S. The role of technology-mediated music-making in enhancing engagement and social communication in children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Journal of intellectual disabilities : JOID. 2018 : 1744629518772648.

Very little research has explored the impact of interventions combining music and technology on children with a dual diagnosis of autism and intellectual disabilities (ID) incorporating the active involvement of school staff. Video recordings and group interviews were used to collect data in this study. Video recordings of five children with autism and ID were conducted as they engaged with a technology-mediated music-making intervention over a period of 5 weeks. Additionally, five group interviews with classroom staff were carried out. This study is the first to explore the impact of a technology-mediated music-making intervention on the engagement levels and social communication skills of children with autism and ID at school. Some positive outcomes, especially regarding social communication skills, are reported, which are of significant value to educational researchers and school staff.

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6. Mahdavi M, Kheirollahi M, Riahi R, Khorvash F, Khorrami M, Mirsafaie M. Meta-Analysis of the Association between GABA Receptor Polymorphisms and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN. 2018.

Previous studies have reported the association of GABA receptor subunits B3, A5, and G3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 15q11-q13 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the currently available results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the association between ASD and the GABA receptor SNPs in chromosomal region 15q11-q13. The association was calculated by the overall odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used sensitivity analyses and the assessment of publication bias in our meta-analysis. Eight independent case-control studies involving 1408 cases and 2846 healthy controls were analyzed, namely, 8 studies for GABRB3 SNPs as well as 4 studies for GABRA5 and GABRG3 polymorphisms. The meta-analysis showed that GABRB3 polymorphisms in general are not significantly associated with autism [OR = 0.846 (95% CI) : 0.595-1.201, I(2) = 79.1%]. Further analysis indicated that no associations were found between GABRB3 SNPs and autism on rs2081648 [OR = 0.84 (95% CI) = 0.41-1.72, I(2) = 89.2%] and rs1426217 [OR = 1.13 (95% CI) = 0.64-2.0, I(2) = 83%]. An OR of 0.95 (95% CI) = 0.77-1.17 was reported (I(2) = 0.0%) for GABRA5 SNPs and an OR of 0.96 (95% CI) = 0.24-3.81 was obtained from GABRG3 SNPs (I(2) = 97.8%). This meta-analysis provides strong evidence that different SNPs of GABA receptor B3, A5, and G3 subunit genes located on chromosome 15q11-q13 are not associated with the development of autism spectrum diseases in different ethnic populations. However, in future research, large-scale and high-quality studies are necessary to confirm the results.

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7. Rivard M, Morin M, Mello C, Terroux A, Mercier C. Follow-Up of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder 1 Year After Early Behavioral Intervention. Behav Modif. 2018 : 145445518773692.

The effectiveness of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been demonstrated by many studies and meta-analyses. Although it is considered an exemplary practice in several countries, few studies have investigated the maintenance of gains made in EIBI over time. Thirty-two children were assessed at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up after they attended a low-to-moderate-intensity (10 to 20 hr per week) EIBI program delivered by a public rehabilitation center. Between baseline and posttreatment, children showed significant gains in most areas of intellectual functioning and a significant decrease of autism symptom severity, but no change in adaptive behavior. Gains in intellectual functioning were maintained over a 1-year period after treatment termination, but autism symptom severity had increased to approximately pretreatment levels during that interval. Considerable individual variability was noted in the evolution of outcomes.

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8. Stevenson JL, Nonack MB. Gender differences in mental rotation strategy depend on degree of autistic traits. Autism Res. 2018.

Participants with low, medium, and high autistic traits completed a mental rotation task while their eye movements were recorded. Men were more accurate than women (F(1, 102) = 4.36, P = 0.04, eta(2)p = 0.04), but there were no group differences in reaction time. In terms of eye movements, all participants tended to rely on top corners of cube figures for most angles of rotation, and bottom corners of cube figures for 0 and 90 degree rotations (duration : F(8, 816) = 21.70, P < 0.001, eta(2)p = 0.18 ; count : F(8, 816) = 24.42, P < 0.001, eta(2)p = 0.19) suggesting a shift in strategy with rotation angle. Eye movements to corners of cube figures also varied by autistic traits group and gender (duration : F(4, 204) = 2.44, P = 0.05, eta(2)p = 0.05 ; count : F(4, 204) = 2.47, P = 0.05, eta(2)p = 0.05). Participants with low and medium autistic traits tended to rely more often on the top corners, whereas women with high autistic traits relied on both the top and bottom corners and men with high autistic traits relied on all corners equally. These results suggest mental rotation strategies may vary by both gender and autistic traits. Autism Res 2018. (c) 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY : The current study looked at eye movements to assess adults’ strategies when mentally rotating three-dimensional cube figures. Adults with varying levels of autistic traits differ in their mental rotation strategies. In addition, gender differences in strategies are observed in adults with the highest level of autistic traits.

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9. The L. Progress in the USA for autistic spectrum disorder. Lancet (London, England). 2018 ; 391(10132) : 1750.

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10. Zhang B, Gokce O, Hale WD, Brose N, Sudhof TC. Autism-associated neuroligin-4 mutation selectively impairs glycinergic synaptic transmission in mouse brainstem synapses. The Journal of experimental medicine. 2018.

In human patients, loss-of-function mutations of the postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecule neuroligin-4 were repeatedly identified as monogenetic causes of autism. In mice, neuroligin-4 deletions caused autism-related behavioral impairments and subtle changes in synaptic transmission, and neuroligin-4 was found, at least in part, at glycinergic synapses. However, low expression levels precluded a comprehensive analysis of neuroligin-4 localization, and overexpression of neuroligin-4 puzzlingly impaired excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function. As a result, the function of neuroligin-4 remains unclear, as does its relation to other neuroligins. To clarify these issues, we systematically examined the function of neuroligin-4, focusing on excitatory and inhibitory inputs to defined projection neurons of the mouse brainstem as central model synapses. We show that loss of neuroligin-4 causes a profound impairment of glycinergic but not glutamatergic synaptic transmission and a decrease in glycinergic synapse numbers. Thus, neuroligin-4 is essential for the organization and/or maintenance of glycinergic synapses.

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