Pubmed du 11/05/18

vendredi 11 mai 2018

1. Bolourian Y, Zeedyk SM, Blacher J. Autism and the University Experience : Narratives from Students with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

Relatively limited research has been devoted to understanding the postsecondary experience from the students’ perspectives. In the current study, individual interviews were conducted with university students with autism spectrum disorder (n = 13) and students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 18) to investigate likely factors impeding meaningful postsecondary experiences. Through an iterative coding process, nine themes were identified, and direct narratives exemplifying each are included. Overall, both diagnostic groups reported significant social, emotional, and academic challenges within the university setting, although there were distinctions. Findings have direct applications to higher education initiatives, such as the development of programs to increase faculty awareness and to target the efforts of university disability centers in meeting the needs of students with neurodevelopmental disorders.

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2. Brookman-Frazee L, Stahmer AC. Effectiveness of a multi-level implementation strategy for ASD interventions : study protocol for two linked cluster randomized trials. Implementation science : IS. 2018 ; 13(1) : 66.

BACKGROUND : The Centers for Disease Control (2018) estimates that 1 in 59 children has autism spectrum disorder, and the annual cost of ASD in the U.S. is estimated to be $236 billion. Evidence-based interventions have been developed and demonstrate effectiveness in improving child outcomes. However, research on generalizable methods to scale up these practices in the multiple service systems caring for these children has been limited and is critical to meet this growing public health need. This project includes two, coordinated studies testing the effectiveness of the Translating Evidence-based Interventions (EBI) for ASD : Multi-Level Implementation Strategy (TEAMS) model. TEAMS focuses on improving implementation leadership, organizational climate, and provider attitudes and motivation in order to improve two key implementation outcomes-provider training completion and intervention fidelity and subsequent child outcomes. The TEAMS Leadership Institute applies implementation leadership strategies and TEAMS Individualized Provider Strategies for training applies motivational interviewing strategies to facilitate provider and organizational behavior change. METHODS : A cluster randomized implementation/effectiveness Hybrid, type 3, trial with a dismantling design will be used to understand the effectiveness of TEAMS and the mechanisms of change across settings and participants. Study #1 will test the TEAMS model with AIM HI (An Individualized Mental Health Intervention for ASD) in publicly funded mental health services. Study #2 will test TEAMS with CPRT (Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching) in education settings. Thirty-seven mental health programs and 37 school districts will be randomized, stratified by county and study, to one of four groups (Standard Provider Training Only, Standard Provider Training + Leader Training, Enhanced Provider Training, Enhanced Provider Training + Leader Training) to test the effectiveness of combining standard, EBI-specific training with the two TEAMS modules individually and together on multiple implementation outcomes. Implementation outcomes including provider training completion, fidelity (coded by observers blind to group assignment) and child behavior change will be examined for 295 mental health providers, 295 teachers, and 590 children. DISCUSSION : This implementation intervention has the potential to increase quality of care for ASD in publicly funded settings by improving effectiveness of intervention implementation. The process and modules will be generalizable to multiple service systems, providers, and interventions, providing broad impact in community services. TRIAL REGISTRATION : This study is registered with ( NCT03380078 ). Registered 20 December 2017, retrospectively registered.

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3. Crehan ET, Baer J, Althoff RR, Constantino JN. Tracking the Influence of Autistic Traits on Competencies Among School Aged Children with Subthreshold Autistic Traits : A Longitudinal Study. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2018.

This study aims to further explore the implications of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms for children who do not meet full diagnostic criteria. More specific characterization of how challenges present relative to traits of ASD such as social responsiveness is vital to developing an understanding of what competency and mental health difficulties these impairments are related to, and if they persist over time. Assessments of autistic traits, clinical symptomotology, and competency were used to quantify the relation of these domains cross-sectionally and across time. Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores significantly contributed to a teacher-report Happy scale from the Teacher’s Report Form and a parent-report Social scale from the Child Behavior Checklist. No significant longitudinal models emerged. Splitting the SRS scores into three severity classes revealed that impaired social responsiveness is significantly related to competency, unlike average or below average deficits. Implications of subthreshold ASD traits on competency outcomes are discussed.

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4. Hogeveen J, Krug MK, Elliott MV, Carter CS, Solomon M. Proactive control as a double-edged sword in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of abnormal psychology. 2018 ; 127(4) : 429-35.

Proactive control refers to the active representation of contextual information to bias cognitive processing and facilitate goal-directed behavior. Despite research suggesting that proactive control may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the associations between proactive control and clinical symptoms of ASD remain underspecified. Here, we combined a children’s version of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) with gold standard clinical assessments in children with ASD (N = 34) or typical development (TYP ; N = 45). After controlling for full-scale IQ (FSIQ), measures of proactive control were similar between ASD and TYP. However, specifically within ASD we observed paradoxical relationships between proactive control and clinical symptoms. Increased reliance on proactive control was associated with reduced attention problems and increased restricted and repetitive behaviors in ASD. Therefore, proactive control appears to represent a double-edged sword in ASD : improved attentional control at the cost of heightened behavioral inflexibility. This represents a compelling and new characterization of the specific association between cognitive control processes isolated in computerized laboratory tasks and the multidimensional cognitive symptoms characteristic of ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record

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5. May T, Williams K. Brief Report : Gender and Age of Diagnosis Time Trends in Children with Autism Using Australian Medicare Data. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

Recent evidence suggests the male predominance in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may be decreasing. Secondary analyses of Australian Medicare data (paediatrician/child psychiatrist items for diagnosing ASD before age 13) were used (N = 73,463 unique children from 1-July-2008 to 30-June-2016). Cumulative incidence of ASD in 4-year-olds in 2015/2016 was 1.10% [95% CI 1.06-1.14], males 1.66% [95% CI 1.60-1.72] and females 0.51% [95% CI 0.47-0.55]. New diagnoses significantly increased in older (5-12 years) males and females but not younger (0-4 years) children, from 2010/2011 to 2015/2016. The M:F ratio decreased in older children (4.1-3.0), but not significantly in younger children (4.2-3.5). Identification of older males and females is contributing to the increased in ASD in Australia and proportionally more older females are being diagnosed.

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6. Noroozi R, Omrani MD, Sayad A, Taheri M, Ghafouri-Fard S. Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 1/2 (CYFIP1/2) expression analysis in autism. Metabolic brain disease. 2018.

Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting proteins 1 and 2 (CYFIP1/2) have been previously shown to be associated with central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Moreover, dysregulation of their expression levels results in disturbances in CNS maturation and neuronal interconnections. In the present study, we compared expression levels of CYFIP1/2 in peripheral blood of 30 ASD patients and 41 healthy subjects by means of real time PCR. Expression analysis showed significant over-expression of CYFIP1/2 in ASD patients compared with healthy subjects (Fold change = 3.252, P < 0.0001 and Fold change = 4.14, P = 0.001 respectively). Such over-expression was also seen for CYFIP1 in male and female patients when compared with the corresponding control subjects. In addition, a significant correlation was found between CYFIP1 transcript levels and age in female subjects. A significant correlation was detected between expression levels of these genes in control subjects. The current study provides further supports for contribution of CYFIP1/2 in the pathogenesis of ASD and potentiates it as a peripheral marker for ASD diagnosis. Future studies in larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the results of the current study.

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7. Sapey-Triomphe LA, Sonie S, Henaff MA, Mattout J, Schmitz C. Correction to : Adults with Autism Tend to Underestimate the Hidden Environmental Structure : Evidence from a Visual Associative Learning Task. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the article title.

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8. Song W, Sun Y, Yu D. [Three-dimensional virtual dolphin treatment system for children with autism spectrum disorder]. Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi. 2017 ; 34(4) : 602-5.

In order to address the problem of traditional dolphin adjuvant therapy such as high cost and its limitation in time and place, this paper introduces a three-dimensional virtual dolphin adjuvant therapy system based on virtual reality technology. By adopting Oculus wearable three-dimensional display, the system combined natural human-computer interaction based on Leap Motion with high-precision gesture recognition and cognitive training, and achieved immersive three-dimensional interactive game for child rehabilitation training purposes. The experimental data showed that the system can effectively improve the cognitive and social abilities of those children with autism spectrum disorder, providing a useful exploration for the rehabilitation of those children.

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9. Vitorino M, Cunha N, Conceicao N, Cancela ML. Expression pattern of cdkl5 during zebrafish early development : implications for use as model for atypical Rett syndrome. Molecular biology reports. 2018.

Atypical Rett syndrome is a child neurodevelopmental disorder induced by mutations in CDKL5 gene and characterized by a progressive regression in development with loss of purposeful use of the hands, slowed brain and head growth, problems with walking, seizures, and intellectual disability. At the moment, there is no cure for this pathology and little information is available concerning animal models capable of mimicking its phenotypes, thus the development of additional animal models should be of interest to gain more knowledge about the disease. Zebrafish has been used successfully as model organism for many human genetic diseases ; however, no information is available concerning the spatial and temporal expression of cdkl5 orthologous in this organism. In the present study, we identified the developmental expression patterns of cdkl5 in zebrafish by quantitative PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization. cdkl5 is expressed maternally at low levels during the first 24 h of development. After that the expression of the gene increases significantly and it starts to be expressed mainly in the nervous system and in several brain structures, such as telencephalon, mesencephalon and diencephalon. The expression patterns of cdkl5 in zebrafish is in accordance with the tissues known to be affected in humans and associated to symptoms and deficits observed in Rett syndrome patients thus providing the first evidence that zebrafish could be an alternative model to study the molecular pathways of this disease as well as to test possible therapeutic approaches capable of rescuing the phenotype.

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10. Vuijk R, Arntz A. Schema therapy as treatment for adults with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid personality disorder : Protocol of a multiple-baseline case series study testing cognitive-behavioral and experiential interventions. Contemporary clinical trials communications. 2017 ; 5 : 80-5.

Background : To our knowledge treatment of personality disorder (PD) comorbidity in adults with ASD is understudied and is still in its infancy. This study investigates the effectiveness of schema therapy for PD-psychopathology in adult patients with both ASD and PD. Methods/design : Twelve adult individuals (age > 18 years) with ASD and at least one PD are given a treatment protocol consisting of 30 weekly offered sessions. A concurrent multiple baseline design is used with baseline varying from 4 to 9 weeks, after which weekly supportive sessions varying from 1 to 6 weeks start with the study therapist. After baseline and 1 to 6 supportive sessions, a 5-week exploration phase follows with weekly sessions during which current and past functioning, psychological symptoms, and schema modes are explored, and information about the treatment is given. This is followed by 15 weekly sessions with cognitive-behavioral interventions and 15 weekly sessions with experiential interventions : patients are vice versa and randomly assigned to the interventions. Finally, there is a 10-month follow-up phase with monthly booster sessions. Participants are randomly assigned to baseline length, and report weekly during treatment and monthly at follow-up on Belief Strength of negative core beliefs, and fill out SMI, SCL-90 and SRS-A 7 times during screening procedure (i.e. before baseline), after supportive sessions, after exploration, after cognitive and behavioral interventions, after experiential interventions, and after 5- and 10- month follow-up. The SCID-II is administered during screening procedure, at 5- and at 10-month follow-up. Trial registration : The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR5788. Registered 01 April 2016.

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11. Wang M, Jegathesan T, Young E, Huber J, Minhas R. Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Monolingual vs Bilingual Homes : A Scoping Review. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018.

BACKGROUND : Approximately 20% of children in Canada and the United States are raised in bilingual family homes. Current recommendations for typically developing children are to encourage and support bilingual exposure in the home ; however, there are no specific guidelines for families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), a disorder in which communication deficits are considered a hallmark feature. OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study is to present a scoping review of studies that compare cognitive, linguistic, and behavioral outcomes for children with ASDs raised in monolingual vs bilingual homes. METHODS : A systematic search of 6 databases for peer-reviewed literature and gray literature search through dissertation databases, conference archives, and reference lists of pertinent studies was conducted. RESULTS : Nine studies were included. No consistent differences were observed in the categories of core ASDs behaviors, cognitive function, or language. The studies suggest a potential bilingual advantage on nonverbal intelligence quotient scores, adaptive functioning, and expressive vocabulary. CONCLUSION : There is no evidence of a detrimental effect of raising children with ASDs in a bilingual home.

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