Pubmed du 17/10/09

lundi 19 octobre 2009

1. Fatemi SH. Multiple pathways in prevention of immune-mediated brain disorders : Implications for the prevention of autism. J Neuroimmunol ;2009 (Oct 13)

2. Mahmood A, Bibat G, Zhan AL, Izbudak I, Farage L, Horska A, Mori S, Naidu S. White Matter Impairment in Rett Syndrome : Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study with Clinical Correlations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ;2009 (Oct 15)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : RTT, caused by mutations in the methyl CPG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene, is a disorder of neuronal maturation and connections. Our aim was to prospectively examine FA by DTI and correlate this with certain clinical features in patients with RTT. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Thirty-two patients with RTT underwent neurologic assessments and DTI. Thirty-seven age-matched healthy female control subjects were studied for comparison. With use of a 1.5T MR imaging unit, DTI data were acquired, and FA was evaluated to investigate multiple regional tract-specific abnormalities in patients with RTT. RESULTS : In RTT, significant reductions in FA were noted in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and external capsule, with regions of significant reductions in the cingulate, internal capsule, posterior thalamic radiation, and frontal white matter. In contrast, FA of visual pathways was similar to control subjects. FA in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, which is associated with speech, was equal to control subjects in patients with preserved speech (phrases and sentences) (P = .542), whereas FA was reduced in those patients who were nonverbal or speaking only single words (P < .001). No correlations between FA values for tracts and clinical features such as seizures, gross or fine motor skills, and head circumference were identified. CONCLUSIONS : DTI, a noninvasive technique to assess white matter tract pathologic features, may add specificity to the assessment of RTT clinical severity that is presently based on the classification of MeCP2 gene mutation and X-inactivation.

3. Puzzo I, Cooper NR, Vetter P, Russo R, Fitzgerald PB. Reduced cortico-motor facilitation in a normal sample with high traits of autism. Neurosci Lett ;2009 (Oct 12)

Recent research in social neuroscience proposes a link between mirror neuron system (MNS) and social cognition. The MNS has been proposed to be the neural mechanism underlying action recognition and intention understanding and more broadly social cognition. Pre-motor MNS has been suggested to modulate the motor cortex during action observation. This modulation results in an enhanced cortico-motor excitability reflected in increased motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at the muscle of interest during action observation. Anomalous MNS activity has been reported in the autistic population whose social skills are notably impaired. It is still an open question whether traits of autism in the normal population are linked to the MNS functioning. We measured TMS-induced MEPs in normal individuals with high and low traits of autism as measured by the autistic quotient (AQ), whilst observing videos of hand or mouth actions, static images of a hand or mouth or a blank screen. No differences were observed between the two while they observed a blank screen. However participants with low traits of autism showed significantly greater MEP amplitudes during observation of hand/mouth actions relative to static hand/mouth stimuli. In contrast, participants with high traits of autism did not show such a MEP amplitude difference between observation of actions and static stimuli. These results are discussed with reference to MNS functioning.


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